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GARDENS BY THE BAY
Hemerocallis 'Fairy Tale Pink'

BUTTERFLY MAGNETS & THEIR COMPANIONS - 2


If you provide a specific area of plants to serve as butterfly magnets it should be in full sun. Avoid the use of pesticides for obvious reasons. And make sure there is a water source nearby as well as some shelter.

Supply host plants on which eggs can be laid, so that a ready food source is at hand for emerged caterpillars.  Provide nectar-rich perennials to feed adult butterflies. This will ensure that your garden is not only enriched by the beauty of butteflies but also helped by their pollinating efforts.

The many plant combinations below will ensure that your gardens are alive with the beauty and activity of many butterfly species.


* Watch for the animated hummingbird and butterfly with the plants that attract them. *
The deer icon indicates plants that deer are not usually attracted to.

The best time and method to propagate plants can be found on our image-intensive PROPAGATION page.

To help your plants grow their best, check out our FERTILIZATION page.

To create your own plant partnerships based on tried and true color theory, check out our GARDEN COLOR page.

To see if a particular plant is on this page press Ctrl+F, type in the name, then click the Find button.


HESPERIS

The four flower petals of the genus Hesperis distinguish it from forms of Phlox for which it is often mistaken. Best in full sun, with moist well-drained soil, this upright perennial or biennial has purple or white blooms in May-June with a strong fragrance in the evening. After bloom the plant goes dormant and should be cut down as soon as it yellows. Allow some seeding to ensure plants for subsequent years.

Hesperis matronalis:  Sweet Rocket, 2-1/2'x2', narrow serrated leaves


LIATRIS

Looking unlike any other Aster in which family it belongs, Blazing Star produces flower spikes that appear fuzzy or feathery and open from the top down. This is a North American wildflower, loved by birds, butterflies and bees. Cut flowers add an exotic look to floral arrangements. Plant this perennial in full sun and provide the well-drained soil preferred and you can enjoy a mid-summer to early fall display.

Liatris:  Blazing Star, Gayfeather

    with:  Solidago canadensis
      in front of:  Anchusa azurea (A. italica), Achillea, Artemisia, Chrysanthemum x superbum,
        Gypsophila paniculata, Heliopsis, Phlox paniculata including white 'Mt. Fujiyama',
          Perovskia atriplicifolia, Echinops ritro, Ornamental Grasses
        offset in front of:  Echinacea purpurea (white forms), Malva alcea, Malva moschata 'Alba'
          combined with:  Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea purpurea 'White Swan' & Buddleia
        Liatris ligulistylis:  3-5 ft. crimson buds open rosy-purple
          where:  to attract butterflies & goldfinches
            with:  Echinacea purpurea 'White Swan'
              combined with:  Alcea rugosa (A. ficifolia), Echinops ritro & Buddleia 'Red Plume'
            Liatris microcephala:  12-14", rose-purple
              where:  front of border (its grass-like foliage must be kept out of the lawn)
                with:  Calamintha nepetoides
              Liatris pycnostachya:  purple, 4', July-August bloom
                where:  moist areas
                  with:  Phlox paniculata ‘Mt. Fujiyama’
                Liatris scariosa 'September Glory':  Eastern (or New England) Blazing Star, Devil's Bite
                  with:  Lythrum 'Robert' & Achillea x 'Moonshine'
                Liatris spicata:  rosy-purple 3', Spike Gayfeather
                  where:  meadow, prairie & perennials gardens, near ponds or streams
                    generally with:  pale yellows
                      with other butterfly magnets:  pale mauve Monarda fistulosa, Echinacea purpurea, Rudbeckia fulgida 'Goldsturm',
                        Coreopsis
                      with:  Achillea, Artemisia, Chrysanthemum x superbum, Heuchera 'Palace Purple', Ornamental Grasses
                        combined with:  Liatris 'Kobold' & Platycodon grandiflorus 'Alba'
                          above trio with:  Pulmonaria saccharata 'Mrs. Moon' & Delphinium elatum 'Blue Connecticut Yankee'
                        Liatris spicata:  white forms
                          a white Liatris'
                          seen in the picture above with:  soft pink Sidalcea malviflora 'Mr. Lingbergh'
                            with:  Jasione perennis 'Blue Light'
                              for more ideas see Liatris spicata 'Floristan White' combinations below
                            Liatris spicata 'Floristan Violet'
                              with:  Geranium (hardy species), Iris pseudacorus, Lysimachia punctata, Lupinus, Dianthus (alpine), Kniphofia uvaria
                            Liatris spicata 'Floristan White':  24-36", pure white, July-August bloom
                              with:  Achillea, Echinacea purpurea, Artemisia, Chrysanthemum x superbum, Phlox paniculata,
                                Ornamental Grasses
                              combined with:  Heuchera 'Palace Purple', Liatris spicata (purple forms), Origanum 'Herenhausen' &
                                Scabiosa 'Pink Mist'
                              all white combination with:  Physostegia virginiana, Lilium 'Casa Blanca' & Phlox paniculata 'Mt. Fujiyama'
                            Liatris spicata 'Kobold':  reddish-lilac, only 24-30" tall but a strong vertical element
                              where:  front to mid-border
                                with other butterfly magnets:  Solidago canadensis, Phlox paniculata (white)
                                  with:  white Platycodon grandiflorus 'Alba', cool yellow Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam'
                                More interesting Liatris information can be found by following the links below.

                              • purple Liatris
                              • white Liatris

                              • LIMONIUM

                                Sea Lavender, sometimes called Statice, has been described as a baby's breath look-alike plant because its flowers appear in airy clusters. It is happiest in either full sun or partial shade with rich, moist, well-drained soil.

                                Limonium latifolium:  Sea Lavender

                                Try the links below for additional information about Sea Lavender.

                              • white Sea Lavender
                              • silver foliage Sea Lavender

                              • MONARDA

                                Known also as Bergamot and Horsemint, Bee Balm produces ragged-looking flowers in a variety of colours above fragrant foliage. This is another North American wildflower. Plant the red types especially to bring hummingbirds to your garden in droves. Moist soil and frequent division will keep your plants healthy.

                                Monarda didyma:  Bee Balm

                                  where:  formal or informal gardens, herb gardens
                                    with:  Achillea, Anthemis including A. tinctoria 'Kelwayi', Astilbe, Chrysanthemum spp, Dodecatheon meadia,
                                      Geranium, Helenium, Lilium, Lysimachia clethroides, Platycodon including
                                        P. grandiflorus var. Mariesii Blue, Scabiosa, Stokesia laevis
                                      combined with:  Veronicastrum (Veronica virginica), Boltonia 'Pink Beauty' & Phlox paniculata 'Franz Schubert'
                                        with other butterfly magnets:  Echinacea purpurea, Phlox paniculata (including white 'Mt. Fujiyama'),
                                          Rudbeckia including R. 'Goldsturm' or 'Marmalade', Rudbeckia laciniata 'Goldquelle'
                                        with bulbs:  Allium including A. aflatunense, A. giganteum, A. schoenoprasum, A. senescens
                                          (a rosy-purple butterfly magnet)
                                        in moist areas with:  Eupatorium, Filipendula, Filipendula rubra, Hibiscus, Ferns
                                      Monarda didyma:  red
                                        Monarda didyma - red Bee Balm
                                        beside:  Aconitum (cool blue, violet or blue & white forms)
                                          behind:  Stokesia laevis
                                            in front of:  Delphinium (blue)
                                              with other butterfly magnets:  Hemerocallis (fruit shades), Rudbeckia 'Goldsturm'
                                                with whites:  Artemisia 'Guizho', Chrysanthemum x superbum 'Alaska' or 'Diener's Double', Veronicastrum virginicum
                                                  combined with:  white Veronicastrum virginicum, Aconitum bicolor 'Bicolor' & Hemerocallis (peachy shades)
                                                    in front of:  Gypsophila paniculata, ivory Lilium martagon (Turk's Cap Lily) & Delphinium (blue)
                                                  Monarda:  pink
                                                    Monarda - pink Bee Balm
                                                    seen above in front of:  bluish-purple annual Delphinium Consolida ajacis & deep purple Clematis 'Polish Spirit'
                                                      with:  Achillea 'Moonshine', Filipendula rubra 'Venusta', Phlox paniculata (rose forms)
                                                        in front of:  Aconitum
                                                          behind:  Anthemis tinctoria 'Kelwayi'
                                                            combined with:  Lilium (white Asiatic) & Tanacetum (Feverfew) all behind a purple-spiked perennial
                                                              (such as Veronica spp.) in front
                                                            combined with:  Lilium 'Pink Perfection' in front of Aconitum & behind Gypsophila 'Rosy Veil'
                                                              pastel combination with:  Echinacea purpurea, Stachys byzantina, Verbena, Geranium spp &
                                                                Ornamental Grasses
                                                              with:  Filipendula rubra 'Venusta'
                                                            Monarda 'Blue Stocking'
                                                              'Blue Stocking' Bee Balm
                                                              combined with:  Echinacea purpurea 'White Swan', Lilium 'Mount Everest & Monarda 'Marshall's Delight'
                                                            Monarda didyma 'Cambridge Scarlet':  brilliant scarlet
                                                              combined with:  Achillea x 'Moonshine' & Astilbe x arendsii 'Deutschland'
                                                                in front of:  Aconitum, with white Chrysanthemum x superbum
                                                                  with:  Hemerocallis 'Hyperion' (canary-yellow)
                                                                Monarda didyma 'Croftway Pink':  soft pink
                                                                  with:  Chrysanthemum x superbum
                                                                    combined with:  Achillea x 'Moonshine' & Astilbe x arendsii 'Deutschland'
                                                                      combined with:  Anthemis tinctoria 'Kelwayi '& Hibiscus spp. (bright pink)
                                                                    Monarda didyma 'Gardenview Scarlet':  brilliant red
                                                                      in front of:  Aconitum with white Chrysanthemum x superbum (Shasta Daisy)
                                                                        combined with:  Artemisia lactiflora, Lobelia 'Compliment Scarlet' & Rudbeckia 'Goldsturm'
                                                                      Monarda didyma 'Marshall's Delight':  bright and showy hot-pink
                                                                        with:  Astilbe, Chrysanthemum parthenium, Echinacea purpurea 'White Swan'
                                                                          in front of:  Delphinium (light blue)
                                                                        Monarda didyma 'Snow Queen':  white Monarda 'Violet Queen':  deep violet-purple, purple-blue
                                                                          with:  Lilium, Phlox paniculata, Achillea, Geranium, Astilbe
                                                                            in moist areas with:  Eupatorium, Filipendula rubra, Hibiscus, Ferns
                                                                          Monarda fistulosa:  Wild Bergamot
                                                                            with:  Liatris spicata
                                                                          Do you need more useful information about growing Bee Balms? Follow the links below.

                                                                        • blue Bee Balm
                                                                        • pink Bee Balm
                                                                        • red Bee Balm
                                                                        • white Bee Balm

                                                                        • MYRRHIS

                                                                          There is only one species in this genus. Sweet Cicely will grow in sun or shade in well-drained soil. Everything about this graceful perennial is attractive, from the ferny green foliage to the fragrant fuzzy-looking white flowers. When I saw this plant with the white effect described below in Patrick Lima's book - The Art of Perennial Gardening, Creative Ways With Hardy Flowers - I knew I'd found a combination I couldn't wait to try out.

                                                                          Myrrhis odorata

                                                                            Myrrhis odorata
                                                                            seen above in front of:  the emerging foliage of Miscanthus sinensis 'Variegatus' and beside a boxwood shrub
                                                                              for a white effect behind:  Tulipa 'Spring Green' (white with green veining), underplanted with white Lamium &
                                                                                Miscanthus sinensis 'Variegatus' nearby
                                                                              with:  scarlet Oriental Poppies
                                                                            If you want to know more about this perennial, follow the link below.

                                                                          • white Sweet Cicely

                                                                          • PHLOX

                                                                            Butterflies will be drawn to the aroma of flowers in the genus Phlox, particularly the mid-summer blooming Garden Phlox, Phlox paniculata.

                                                                            Phlox decussata 'David':  white, mildew-resistant

                                                                              combined with:  Rudbeckia, Aster 'Hella Lacy' & Coreopsis 'Goldfink'
                                                                            Phlox maculata 'Miss Lingard':  Wild Sweet William, cool white, fragrant, early-blooming, June-July
                                                                              with:  Hemerocallis 'Pink Lavender Appeal' (unusual colour)
                                                                                with:  Nepeta sibirica
                                                                                  combined with:  Linum perenne & Tulipa (white or yellow)
                                                                                    combined with:  Campanula lactiflora 'White Flower Farm Selection' (a mid-blue), Digitalis ambigua &
                                                                                      Chrysanthemum parthenium
                                                                                  Phlox maculata 'Rosalinde':  Wild Sweet William
                                                                                    with:  Nepeta sibirica
                                                                                  Phlox paniculata:  Garden Phlox, Summer Phlox, Summer Perennial Phlox
                                                                                    where:  informal or formal gardens, woodland edges, rich, moist, well-drained sites
                                                                                      for contrast with spiky plants:  Cimicifuga racemosa, Digitalis, Crocosmia x crocosmiiflora, Iris x germanica,
                                                                                        Veronica longifolia, Veronicastrum virginicum
                                                                                      for shape contrast with rounded plants:  Echinops ritro, Geranium, Gypsophila paniculata
                                                                                        with Ornamental Grasses:  Miscanthus sinensis 'Silberfeder'
                                                                                          with:  Artemisia, Artemisia lactiflora, Chelone lyonii, Chrysanthemum x superbum (Shasta Daisy),
                                                                                            Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam', Erigeron 'Profusion', Erigeron speciosus, Filipendula, Filipendula rubra, Filipendula rubra 'Venusta'
                                                                                          with:  Goniolinum tartaricum, Helenium autumnale, Heliopsis, Kniphofia, Liatris, Limonium latifolium,
                                                                                            Lobelia siphilitica, Lythrum salicaria 'Morden Pink', Malva alcea, Malva moschata 'Alba', Patrinia scabiosifolia 'Nagoya', Physostegia virginiana, Platycodon, Polemonium caeruleum, Sanguisorba canadensis, Scabiosa caucasica, Sidalcea including bright pink 'Party Girl', Stokesia laevis
                                                                                          with:  Aconitum including Aconitum x cammarum 'Bicolor' (violet and white)
                                                                                            with:  Eryngium including E. amethystinum, E. planum, E. tripartitum or hybrids
                                                                                              in front of:  Anchusa, Delphinium (tall types), Digitalis
                                                                                                behind:  Oenothera macrocarpa (formerly O. missouriensis)
                                                                                                  in shade with:  Astilbe
                                                                                                    with other butterfly magnets:  Aster, Aster x frikartii, Echinacea purpurea, Eupatorium, Helianthus, Hemerocallis,
                                                                                                      Monarda including 'Violet Queen' (deep violet purple), Rudbeckia including 'Goldsturm', 'Goldquelle' and 'Marmalade', Solidago canadensis
                                                                                                    behind:  Anthemis tinctoria, Aquilegia, Iris
                                                                                                      beside:  Paeonia, Papaver orientale
                                                                                                        combined with:  Calamintha, Gypsophila paniculata 'Perfecta' & Perovskia atriplicifolia
                                                                                                      Phlox paniculata:  cherry
                                                                                                        with:  Filipendula rubra 'Venusta'
                                                                                                      Phlox paniculata:  hot pink
                                                                                                        with:  Veronicastrum virginicum (white)
                                                                                                      Phlox paniculata:  magenta
                                                                                                        with:  Filipendula rubra 'Venusta'
                                                                                                          with:  Thalictrum aquilegiafolium, Thalictrum delavayi 'Hewitt's Double'
                                                                                                            behind:  Elymus arenarius (Sea Lyme Grass) with Lavatera 'Silver Cup' (bright pink veined with maroon) &
                                                                                                              Cosmos (mauve or wine-red)
                                                                                                          Phlox paniculata:  orange forms Phlox paniculata:  pastel shades
                                                                                                            especially nice with:  Echinops ritro
                                                                                                          Phlox paniculata:  pink
                                                                                                            with:  Aconitum pyrenaicum (yellow)
                                                                                                              with:  Artemisia ludoviciana (Silver Sage)
                                                                                                                with:  Chrysanthemum parthenium (now Tanacetum parthenium)
                                                                                                                  combined with:  Cimicifuga racemosa & hardy white Lilies
                                                                                                                    combined with:  Artemisia ludoviciana & crimson-coloured roses
                                                                                                                  Phlox paniculata:  pink - soft tones
                                                                                                                    Phlox paniculata 'Europa'
                                                                                                                    the cultivar above is 'Europa' with very light pink petals and a much darker pink eye
                                                                                                                      with:  Thalictrum aquilegiafolium
                                                                                                                    Phlox paniculata:  purple forms
                                                                                                                      in front of:  Delphinium 'Black Knight' (gorgeous)
                                                                                                                        with:  Aconitum, Lythrum, Cimicifuga, Chrysanthemum x superbum, Artemisia lactiflora,
                                                                                                                          Gypsophila, Artemisia
                                                                                                                      Phlox paniculata:  reds
                                                                                                                        with:  Ligularia stenocephala 'The Rocket'
                                                                                                                      Phlox paniculata:  rose-coloured forms Phlox paniculata:  salmon
                                                                                                                        not with:  Filipendula rubra 'Venusta'
                                                                                                                      Phlox paniculata:  strong-coloured forms
                                                                                                                        in front of:  Miscanthus sinensis
                                                                                                                          behind:  Helictotrichon sempervirens
                                                                                                                        Phlox paniculata:  white forms
                                                                                                                          with:  Achillea 'Summer Pastels', Delphinium, Echinacea purpurea, Erigeron, Filipendula, Geranium,
                                                                                                                            Helenium autumnale, Helianthus, Heliopsis, Liatris, Patrinia scabiosifolia, Platycodon, Salvia x superba, Thalictrum aquilegiafolium
                                                                                                                          with:  Iris x germanica (blue or light yellow), Centaurea montana, Rudbeckia 'Goldsturm'
                                                                                                                            in front of:  Aconitum (violet), Aconitum (blue & white)
                                                                                                                              in front of:  Digitalis, Anchusa
                                                                                                                                behind:  Hemerocallis (peach & apricot shades)
                                                                                                                                  behind:  Astilbe, Iris, Aquilegia
                                                                                                                                    with:  Ornamental Grasses
                                                                                                                                      with other butterfly magnets:  Eupatorium, Monarda, Hemerocallis
                                                                                                                                        combined with:  Campanula lactiflora 'Loddon Anna' (soft pink), Perovskia atriplicifolia & Caryopteris
                                                                                                                                          or Adenophora confusa
                                                                                                                                        combined with:  Aconitum (dark blue) & Hemerocallis (melon-coloured form feathered with red)
                                                                                                                                          combined with:  Achillea filipendulina 'Gold Plate', Hemerocallis (tawny-coloured) & Aconitum x bicolor
                                                                                                                                        Phlox paniculata 'Barnwell':  pink
                                                                                                                                          'Barnwell' Garden Phlox
                                                                                                                                          imagine this magnetic pink beauty in combinations suggested generally for pink forms above
                                                                                                                                        Phlox paniculata 'Bright Eyes':  pink flowers with crimson eyes, mildew-resistant
                                                                                                                                          note:  sweet fragrance attracts both butterflies and hummingbirds
                                                                                                                                            combined with:  Sanguisorba obtusa, Geranium psilostemon & Centranthus 'Snowcloud'
                                                                                                                                          Phlox paniculata 'Eva Cullum':  bright pink
                                                                                                                                            with:  Polemonium caeruleum
                                                                                                                                          Phlox paniculata 'Franz Schubert':  lilac-blue with purple eye, long-blooming, 30-36"
                                                                                                                                            generally with:  blues, whites, pale yellows
                                                                                                                                              with:  Polemonium caeruleum
                                                                                                                                                late blooming combo with:  Veronicastrum virginicum, Boltonia 'Pink Beauty' & Monarda
                                                                                                                                                  combined with:  Artemisia ludoviciana 'Silver King & Hemerocallis 'Joan Senior'
                                                                                                                                                Phlox paniculata 'Mt. Fujiyama':  sparkling white with a soft golden eye, 26"
                                                                                                                                                  Phlox paniculata 'Mount Fujiyama' - 'Mt. Fujiyama' Garden Phlox
                                                                                                                                                  for even more companions refer to:  Phlox paniculata - white forms - above
                                                                                                                                                    with:  Chrysanthemum x superbum
                                                                                                                                                      combined with other white flowered perennials:  Physostegia, Lilium 'Casa Blanca' & Liatris 'Floristan White'
                                                                                                                                                        between strong colours:  Achillea x 'Coronation Gold', Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam', Liatris pycnostachya,
                                                                                                                                                          Miscanthus 'Silberfeder' & Lilium 'Sans Souci'
                                                                                                                                                        with other butterfly magnets:  Monarda didyma
                                                                                                                                                          combined with:  Perovskia atriplicifolia & Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam'
                                                                                                                                                        Phlox paniculata 'Sandra':  rich orange-pink, 20"
                                                                                                                                                          with:  white flowers, silver-leaved plants
                                                                                                                                                        Phlox paniculata 'White Admiral':  36", giant white flower
                                                                                                                                                          with:  Achillea 'Red Beauty'
                                                                                                                                                        Follow the links below for more partnership ideas and information about Phlox.

                                                                                                                                                      • Phlox for edging
                                                                                                                                                      • blue Phlox
                                                                                                                                                      • orange Phlox
                                                                                                                                                      • pink Phlox
                                                                                                                                                      • red Phlox
                                                                                                                                                      • Phlox for shade
                                                                                                                                                      • white Phlox
                                                                                                                                                      • Phlox with variegated foliage



                                                                                                                                                      • RUTA

                                                                                                                                                        Rue is a genus of evergreen summer-flowering sub-shrubs. Foliage is deeply divided and aromatic. Small mustard-yellow flowers appear in clusters. These should be removed while in bud if it is the impact of the foliage you want to highlight. Prune back to old wood only in the spring to keep the plant compact. Semi-ripe cuttings may be taken in summer for propagation purposes. If you spot caterpillars on the foliage do not spray. Rue is favoured by the larvae of the monarch butterfly.

                                                                                                                                                        Ruta graveolens:  1-3'x2'



                                                                                                                                                        SEDUM

                                                                                                                                                        Border varieties of this genus, both upright in habit and late-blooming, provide a landing platform for butterflies who appreciate their large flower clusters. Bees will be drawn to them as well. This may be considered a bonus or a drawback.

                                                                                                                                                        Sedum spectabile:  Showy Stonecrop

                                                                                                                                                          with:  hybrid Tulipa, Achillea, Echinacea purpurea, Geranium, Coreopsis, Ornamental Grasses,
                                                                                                                                                            annual purple Sage
                                                                                                                                                          with:  blue forms of Aster novi-belgii, Aster novae-angliae, Aster x frikartii
                                                                                                                                                            combined with:  Eupatorium (lavender-blue) & Salvia x superba
                                                                                                                                                          Sedum 'Autumn Joy':  salmon-pink, darkening as it ages
                                                                                                                                                            Sedum spectabile 'Autumn Joy' - 'Autumn Joy' Sedum
                                                                                                                                                            with shrubs:  Berberis thunbergii 'Atropurpurea', Caryopteris x clandonensis 'Blue Mist' (lavender-blue)
                                                                                                                                                              or 'Dark Knight' (violet-blue)
                                                                                                                                                            with other butterfly magnets:  Asclepias tuberosa, Aster (Michaelmas Daisy), blue New England or New York types,
                                                                                                                                                              Aster frikartii (any blues), Aster novae-angliae 'Alma Potschke' (deep salmon-pink), Aster novae-angliae 'Autumn Snow', Aster novi-belgii 'Benary's Composition Mix', Rudbeckia including 'Goldquelle', 'Goldsturm' and 'Marmalade'
                                                                                                                                                            combined with:  Rudbeckia 'Goldsturm' & Pennisetum alopecuroides
                                                                                                                                                              with:  Chrysanthemum x superbum (Shasta Daisy), Echinops ritro
                                                                                                                                                                with:  Sanguisorba canadensis
                                                                                                                                                                  with:  Eupatorium coelestinum, Helenium autumnale 'Brilliant', Helenium 'Hoopesii', Helianthus decapetalus,
                                                                                                                                                                    Gaura lindheimeri
                                                                                                                                                                  behind:  Dianthus 'Aqua', Geranium sanguineum striatum, Potentilla 'Firedance'
                                                                                                                                                                    with:  Ornamental Grasses including Festuca, tall Miscanthus sinensis 'Gracillimus', Pennisetum alopecuroides,
                                                                                                                                                                      Pennisetum villosum
                                                                                                                                                                    in front of:  Papaver orientale to hide the poppy's foliage when it dies back, Achillea 'Coronation Gold'
                                                                                                                                                                      between:  Yucca smalliana & Stachys byzantina
                                                                                                                                                                        behind:  Hosta sieboldiana 'Elegans'
                                                                                                                                                                          beside:  Aster 'Little Blue Boy' (dwarf), Aster ericoides 'Blue Star'
                                                                                                                                                                            beside:  Coreopsis verticillata 'Golden Showers' or 'Moonbeam', Kniphofia 'Royal Castle Hybrids',
                                                                                                                                                                              Salvia farinacea 'Victoria' (annual)
                                                                                                                                                                            in front of:  Artemisia 'Powis Castle', Boltonia asteroides
                                                                                                                                                                              with:  Perovskia atriplicifolia, Physostegia virginiana 'Alba', Verbena bonariensis
                                                                                                                                                                                behind:  Artemisia schmidtiana nana 'Silver Mound'
                                                                                                                                                                              Sedum spectabile 'Brilliant':  bright rose-pink
                                                                                                                                                                                never with:  Sedum 'Autumn Joy' (their colours clash terribly)
                                                                                                                                                                                  note:  it is safe to use many of the same companions as for 'Autumn Joy' however without clashes
                                                                                                                                                                                    with:  Veronicastrum virginicum
                                                                                                                                                                                  Sedum spectabile 'Carmen'
                                                                                                                                                                                    behind:  Gonioliunum tartaricum
                                                                                                                                                                                      in front of:  Perovskia atriplicifolia
                                                                                                                                                                                        with:  Helianthemum 'Wisley Pink'
                                                                                                                                                                                          with:  Campanula carpatica 'White Clips'
                                                                                                                                                                                        Sedum spectabile 'Stardust':  blue-green foliage, white flowers
                                                                                                                                                                                          beside:  Eryngium bourgatii
                                                                                                                                                                                            behind:  Limonium latifolium
                                                                                                                                                                                              in front of:  Centranthus ruber
                                                                                                                                                                                            Try the following links for more information about and partnership ideas for Sedums.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sedums for edging
                                                                                                                                                                                          • red Sedums
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sedums with silver foliage
                                                                                                                                                                                          • white Sedums
                                                                                                                                                                                          • yellow Sedums
                                                                                                                                                                                          • Sedums with variegated foliage



                                                                                                                                                                                          • SOLIDAGO

                                                                                                                                                                                            Goldenrod does not cause hay fever so can be safely added to your gardens in full sun to light shade for late summer colour. This plant tolerates drought and is available in many desirable cultivars including those shown below.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Solidago:  Goldenrod

                                                                                                                                                                                            Solidago 'Golden Shower' Solidago 'Peter Pan' Solidago sphacelata 'Golden Fleece' Follow the link below for more partnership ideas for and information about Goldenrod.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • yellow Goldenrod forms



                                                                                                                                                                                          • VERBENA

                                                                                                                                                                                            A clear favourite with British garden writer, Christopher Lloyd, this tender perennial that often self-sows will continue blooming into October. Surely this is a welcome addition to any garden.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Verbena bonariensis:  tender perennial, deep purple, 4-5', Zone 7

                                                                                                                                                                                              formerly:  V. patagonica
                                                                                                                                                                                                nearly as appealing to butterflies as Buddleia
                                                                                                                                                                                                  where:  especially attractive in mass plantings
                                                                                                                                                                                                    with:  Hemerocallis
                                                                                                                                                                                                      with:  Lavandula, Achillea, Sedum, Echinacea purpurea, Echinops, Yucca
                                                                                                                                                                                                        with other butterfly attractors:  Eupatorium (Joe-Pye-weed), Buddleia
                                                                                                                                                                                                      You can find more information about and partners for Verbena by following the link below.

                                                                                                                                                                                                    • pink Verbena forms



                                                                                                                                                                                                    • VERONICASTRUM

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Also called Bowman's Root and Blackroot as well as Culver's Root, this elegant late summer blooming perennial will add height and structure to the mid to rear areas of any border with full sun and well-drained, fertile soil. Flower spikes can bring the height of this plant to from 4-7 feet. Provide ample fertilization for best results.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Veronicastrum virginicicum:  Culver's Root

                                                                                                                                                                                                        synonym:  Veronica virginica
                                                                                                                                                                                                          where:  sun to light shade, average to damp soil
                                                                                                                                                                                                            generally with:  white & blue perennials, foliage plants (i.e. Hosta, Ornamental Grasses)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              with other butterfly magnets:  Hemerocallis, Phlox paniculata, Rudbeckia
                                                                                                                                                                                                                with:  Aconitum, Anemone japonica, Angelica gigas, Helenium autumnale, Monarda didyma
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  late blooming combination with:  Boltonia 'Pink Beauty', Monarda & Phlox paniculata 'Franz Schubert'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    combined with:  Helenium autumnale 'Brilliant' & Sedum 'Autumn Joy'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      combined with:  Anemone tomentosa 'Robustissima', Cimicifuga & Thalictrum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Veronicastrum virginicum 'Album':  very white flowers, dark foliage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      with:  Phlox paniculata (hot pink), Monarda (red) & Hemerocallis (peachy tones)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        in light shade with:  Aconitum (violet), Aconitum bicolor 'Bicolor'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          behind:  pink Hemerocallis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            combined with:  Hemerocallis 'Joan Senior', Miscanthus sinensis 'Silberfeder' & Achillea 'Coronation Gold'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          If you are looking for more information about and companions for Culver's Root, you will find them at the link below.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • white Culver's Root



                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • FOLLOW THE LINK BELOW TO THE FIRST PAGE OF BUTTERFLY-ATTRACTING PERENNIALS & THEIR COMPANIONS.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                          All of our own Gardens By The Bay pages can be accessed by clicking on the links below.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BLUE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Geranium  |  Iris - Vinca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BULBS    Allium - Hyacinthus  |  Narcissus only  |  Tulipa only  |  Minor Bulbs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          BUTTERFLY MAGNETS    Anaphalis - Hemerocallis  |  Liatris - Veronicastrum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DAYLILIES      Spider & Unusual Form

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          EDGERS    Arabis - Iris  |  Nepeta - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FOLIAGE PERENNIALS     Alchemilla - Tanacetum

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          HOSTA    Hosta - all

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          HUMMINGBIRD-FRIENDLY PERENNIALS    Alcea - Salvia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ORANGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Tulipa

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          ORNAMENTAL GRASSES    Acorus - Imperata |  Miscanthus - Spodiopogon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PINK PERENNIALS    Achillea - Lilium  |  Lychnis - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PURPLE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Liatris  |  Polemonium - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          RED PERENNIALS    Achillea - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SHADE PERENNIALS    Aegopodium - Erythronium  |  Ferns - Polemonium  |  Polygonatum - Vinca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SILVER FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Cerastium    |    Cornus - Limonium    |    Lunaria - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          SIMPLY SPECIAL PERENNIALS    Acanthus - Saxifraga

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          WHITE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Iris  |  Kalimeris - Yucca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          YELLOW PERENNIALS    Achillea - Hypericum  |  Inula - Verbascum

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          VARIEGATED-FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Acorus - Erythronium  |  Hakonechloa - Lysimachia  |  Miscanthus - Yucca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PLANT PROFILES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Dianthus 'Tiny Rubies'  |  Geranium  |  Geum coccineum  |  Kerria japonica  |  Knautia macedonica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Paeonia tenuifolia  |  Papaver somniferum  |  Rudbeckia  |  Salvia 'East Friesland'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Trollius  |  Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          PROPAGATION

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          DIVISION - SPRING ONLY  |   DIVISION - FALL ONLY  |   DIVISION - SPRING OR FALL  |   DO NOT DIVIDE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          FERTILIZATION

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