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GARDENS BY THE BAY


Hemerocallis 'Lady Fingers'

PLANT   PROPAGATION


When we find a plant we like, we eventually want more of it. And propagation of our own perennials is the best way to produce as many as we like.

There are many methods to propagate our plants, division being one of the easiest and surest ways to obtain a plant identical to the original. This page contains alphabetical lists of plants that prefer division at a particular time or not at all. Use the following quick links to jump to each section:  

This page is very image intensive, but has plenty of information to check out while waiting for images to load. Photographs of many of the plants may introduce you to some you're not familiar with but may want to try. Underlined plant names provide links to other pages on our site, with more information about how to grow a plant well, find perfect partners to plant nearby or other colours in which it might be available.

Alternative methods of propagation are also provided. Sources from which this information was obtained do not always agree on some points. If there are discrepancies, this may be the reason.


To help your plants grow their best, check out our FERTILIZATION page.

To create your own plant partnerships based on tried and true color theory, check out our GARDEN COLOR page.

To see if a particular plant is on this page press Ctrl+F, type in the name, then click the Find button.


SPRING DIVISION ONLY

By the time spring arrives, most of us are anxious to get to work in our gardens and implement the plans we made last year or over the winter months. We've tidied up dead foliage and are now ready to divide our perennials. Those in the list below prefer to be divided in spring, those with a asterisk actually requiring very early spring division. You may have to be careful not to step on tiny seedlings that have popped up here and there, and you certainly don't want to lop the top off your daffodils and tulips as you work in the garden, but spring is a wonderful time to replant new divisions.

Alchemilla mollis:  Lady's Mantle

    Alchemilla mollis - Lady's Mantle
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in summer
    • plants may self-sow
Anchusa:  Bugloss
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take root cuttings in early spring
    • will sometimes self-sow; if so, move seedlings where desired

Anemone hupehensis:  Chinese Anemone

    Anemone hupehensis 'September Charm'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take root cuttings while plants are dormant
Anthemis tinctoria:  Golden Marguerite
    Anthemis tinctoria 'Kelwayi' - Golden Marguerite 'Kelwayi'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take stem cuttings in spring or early summer
    • plants will self-sow
Arisaema triphyllum:  Jack-in-the-Pulpit
    Arisaema triphyllum - Jack-in-the-Pulpit'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow clean fresh seeds outdoors in fall
Asarum:  Wild Ginger
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds indoors or outdoors in summer
    • may self-sow
Asarum europaeum:  European Wild Ginger
    Asarum europaeum - European Wild Ginger
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds indoors or outdoors in summer
    • may self-sow if you're lucky - you'll want lots of this beauty

Asclepias tuberosa:  Butterfly Weed

    other methods of propagation:  
    • take tip cuttings in late spring or early summer
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall

Aster alpinus (early summer):  Alpine Aster

    other methods of propagation: 
    • take stem cuttings in late spring or early summer
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, stratify for 4-6 weeks

Astilbe:  Astilbe, False Spirea

    Astilbe - an unnamed pink form
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds in autumn (species only)

Astrantia major:  Masterwort

    Astrantia - Masterwort
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow fresh seeds as soon as available

Baptisia australis (early spring):  Blue False Indigo

    Baptisia australis - Blue False Indigo
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors or indoors in summer, after soaking them overnight in hot water for faster germination
Bellis perennis:  English Daisy
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds in early summer

Campanula carpatica:  Carpathian Harebell, * early spring

    Campanula carpatica 'Blue Clips' - 'Blue Clips' Carpathian Harebell
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take tip cuttings in early summer
    • sow fresh seeds indoors, leaving uncovered as light will assist germination

Campanula poscharskyana:  Serbian Bellflower

    other methods of propagation:  
    • by seed

Carex glauca:  Blue Sedge

    Carex glauca - Blue Sedge

Cephalaria tatarica:  Giant Scabious

    Cephalaria tatarica - Giant Scabious
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn
Cerastium tomentosum:  Snow-in-Summer
    Cerastium tomentosum - Snow-in-Summer
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take tip cuttings in summer
Chrysanthemum coccineum:  Painted Daisy, Pyrethrum
    Chrysanthemum coccineum - a pink Painted Daisy
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in late winter or early spring
Chrysanthemum x superbum:  Shasta Daisy
    Leucanthemum x superbum - Shasta Daisy
    other methods of propagation:  
    • seed (species only)
    • cuttings

Chrysogonum virginianum:  Golden Star

    Chrysogonum virginianum - Golden Star
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds when fresh
Delphinium:  Delphinium
    white Delphinium 'Galahad'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in summer or fall
    • take stem cuttings in early spring
Deschampsia cespitosa 'Northern Lights':  Tufted Hair Grass, Fairy Wand Grass

Dodecatheon meadia:  Shooting Star

    Dodecatheon meadia - Shooting Star
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take root cuttings in summer or fall
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in summer

Echinacea purpurea:  Purple Coneflower

    Purple ConeflowerEchinacea purpurea 'White Swan' - Purple Coneflower 'White Swan'
    Note:  several sources do not recommend division - such plants become bushy and flower less
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take root cuttings in fall
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, stratify for 4-6 weeks
Erigeron speciosus:  Fleabane
    Erigeron speciosus - Fleabane
    Note:  division should be done in late spring, every 2-3 years
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take tip cuttings in early summer
    • sow seeds indoors in winter
Eriophyllum lanatum:  Woolly Sunflower
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds in autumn
Eryngium:  Sea Holly
    Eryngium - Sea Holly, an unknown cultivar
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, stratify for 4-6 weeks
    • take root cuttings in winter

Festuca ovina:  Blue Fescue

    other methods of propagation: 
    • self-sown seedlings will appear about the garden

Fritillaria imperialis:  Crown Imperial Fritillary

    Fritillaria orientalis - Crown Imperial Fritillary
    produces abundant offsets;  lift & divide every 2-3 years, or when flowering declines, immediately after foliage has ripened

Fritillaria meleagris:  Checkered Lily, Guinea-Hen Flower, Snake's Head

    Fritillaria meleagris - Checkered Lily, Snake's Head Fritillary

Gaillardia:  Blanket Flower, * very early spring i.e. March

    Gaillardia x grandiflora 'Monarch Strain' - Blanket Flower 'Monarch Strain'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, stratify for 4 weeks
Geranium sanguineum:  Blood-Red Cranesbill, Bloody Cranesbill
    Geranium sanguineum 'Alpenglow' - Bloody Cranesbill 'Alpenglow'
    other methods of propagation:  
  • sow seeds in spring
  • take cuttings in summer
Hosta:  Hosta, Plantain Lily, Funkia
    other methods of propagation:  
    • seed:  unreliable as even species will not come true
    • seed:  fun, in spite of what's written just above

Iris danfordiae:  Danford Iris

    Iris danfordiae - Danford's Iris

Iris reticulata:  Reticulated Iris

    Iris reticulata - Reticulated Iris, a bulbous form

Jasione perennis:  Shepherd's Bit
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds in autumn
Kniphofia:  Red-Hot Poker, Torch Lily
    Kniphofia - Red-Hot Poker
    Note:  divide by removing a crown from the edge of the main clump
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds indoors (species only) in winter, stratify for 6 weeks
Lamium maculatum:  Spotted Lamium, Spotted Dead Nettle
    Lamium maculatum 'Shell Pink' - Spotted Dead Nettle 'Shell Pink'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take tip cuttings in spring or summer
Lobelia siphilitica:  Great Blue Lobelia
    Lobelia siphilitica - Great Blue Lobelia
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds in spring or fall
    • may self-sow a bit if you're lucky

Narcissus:  Narcissus, Daffodil, Jonquil

    Narcissus 'Hawera' - Daffodil 'Hawera'

Nepeta x faassenii:  Catmint

    Nepeta x faassenii - Catmint
    other methods of propagation:  
    • species forms may be seed-started
    • take tip cuttings in early summer

Oenothera speciosa:  Showy Evening Primrose

    Oenothera speciosa - Showy Evening Primrose
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring or fall
    • take softwood cuttings in late spring
Ornithogalum umbellatum:  Star of Bethlehem
    Ornithogalum umbellatum - Star of Bethlehem bulb
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds in autumn
Pachysandra:  Japanese Spurge

Papaver nudicaule:  Iceland Poppy

    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring or fall
    • may self-seed

Papaver orientale:  Oriental Poppy

    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring or fall
    • may self-seed
Patrinia scabiosifolia:  Patrinia
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
Penstemon:  Beardtongue
    Penstemon
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds of species forms only in spring or fall
    • take cuttings of non-flowering shoots in late summer
Phuopsis styosa:  Crosswort, Russian Pincushion
    other methods of propagation: 
    • take semi-ripe cuttings in summer
    • sow seeds in autumn

Physostegia virginiana:  Obedient Plant

    purple Physostegia virginiana - purple Obedient Plant
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds
    • will self-sow
    • take small basal cuttings

Primula (after flowering):  Primrose

    Primula - soft yellow
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in early spring
    • take root cuttings

Sanguinaria canadensis:  Bloodroot

    Sanguinaria canadensis 'Flore Pleno'
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds in autumn

Saxifraga:  Saxifrage, Rockfoil

    Saxatilis 'London Pride' - 'London Pride' Saxifrage
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds in autumn

Scabiosa caucasica:  Pincushion Flower

    Scabiosa caucasica 'Perfecta Alba'
    Note:  divide only when they become overcrowded
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
    • direct sow in spring or summer
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter
    • take cuttings in summer
Scabiosa columbaria 'Pink Mist':  Pincushion Flower
    Note:  divide only when they become overcrowded
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
    • direct sow in spring or summer
    • take cuttings in summer

Sedum sieboldii (mid-summer):  October Daphne

    Note:  according to "Perennials for Ontario" by Alison Beck and Kathy Renwald, the seed you buy may be a mix of different species. They add "you might not get what you hoped for or expected, but you can just as easily be pleasantly surprised".
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds indoors in early spring

Sidalcea malviflora:  Checkerbloom

    Sidalcea 'Mr. Lindbergh'

x Solidaster luteus:  Solidaster

Tanacetum vulgare:  Common Tansy

    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seed in late winter or early spring

Teucrium:  Germander

    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds in spring

Thalictrum aquilegiafolium:  Meadow Rue

    Thalictrum aquilegifolium
    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seed, when fresh, in autumn

Tricyrtis hirta:  Toad Lily

    other methods of propagation:  
    • may self-sow

Trifolium incarnatum:  Red Clover

    other methods of propagation: 
    • sow seeds in autumn
    • self-sows readily

Veronica pectinata:  Woolly Speedwell, Combleaf Speedwell

    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer

Veronica prostrata:  Creeping Speedwell

    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer

Veronica whitleyi:  Whitley's Speedwell

    Veronica whitleyi
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer

Yucca filamentosa:  Yucca, Adam's-Needle, Spanish Bayonet

    Note:  divide offsets only
    other methods of propagation: 
    • take root cuttings in spring


FALL DIVISION ONLY

Fall may be an even better time to propagate your plants by division than spring. You don't have to worry about stepping on seedlings or damaging the flowers of bulbs or their foliage. The sun is not so hot, the soil is still warm and plants have a long period of time to become established with cooler temperatures and fall rains. Nearby plants are still lush and full and you know exactly how much room is available in which to replant your divisions without crowding anything nearby. Make sure you know where your spring bulbs are located so you don't inadvertently dig into them. And the plants in the list below actually prefer division in the fall. Those marked with an asterisk are best divided in late summer.

Acanthus mollis:  Bear's Breech

    other methods of propagation:  
    • root cuttings in spring or late fall
Amsonia:  Blue Star
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in summer
    • take tip cuttings in early summer
Anemone blanda:  Grecian Windflower
    Anemone blanda
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in summer

Antennaria dioica:  Pussytoes

Arabis caucasica:  Wall Rock Cress

    Arabis caucasica - a single form
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take cuttings in spring
Arum italicum:  Italian Arum
    Note:  divide in summer as leaves wither
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow clean fresh seeds outside in fall
Aruncus:  Goat's Beard
    Aruncus dioicus
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds indoors or outdoors in summer in warm growing medium (70 deg. F.)
Athyrium filix-femina:  Lady Fern
    Athyrium filix-femina - Lady Fern

Athyrium nipponicum:  Japanese Painted Fern

    Athyrium nipponicum 'Pictum' - Japanese Painted Fern
    other methods of propagation:  
    • by spores in late summer

Aubrieta deltoidea:  Rock Cress

    pink Aubrieta
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take cuttings after flowering, every 3-4 years
Bergenia:  Bergenia, Pig Squeak
    Bergenia cordifolia - Bergenia, Pig Squeak
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds either indoors or outdoors in summer
Bupthalmum (Synonym: Telekia speciosa):  Scented Ox-Eye Daisy

Convallaria majalis (September):  Lily-of-the-Valley

    Convallaria majalis - Lily of the Valley
    other methods of propagation:  
    • can also be started from seed
Endymion hispanicus:  Spanish Bluebells, * late summer
    Endymion hispanicus -  Scilla campanulata - Hyacinthoides hispanicus
    other methods of propagation:  
    • seed sown in autumn
Eremurus spp:  Foxtail Lily
    Eremurus - yellow Foxtail Lily
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds either indoors or outdoors in fall
Filipendula vulgaris:  Dropwort
    Filipendula vulgaris
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring or fall
Geum (late summer):  Avens
    Geum coccineum - formerly Geum borisii
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in summer or fall
Incarvillea delavayi:  Hardy Gloxinia
    Incarvillea delavayi - Hardy Gloxinia
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seed in autumn or spring
Iris x germanica (late summer):  Bearded Iris

Iris sibirica (late summer):  Siberian Iris

    Iris sibirica - Siberian Iris, a dark purple form

Lamiastrum galeobdolon:  Yellow Archangel, False Lamium

    Yellow Archangel
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take tip cuttings in spring or summer
Lilium:  Lily
    pink Lily - an unidentified cultivar
    Note: :  divide in late summer i.e. October, as they go dormant
Lychnis x arkwrightii:  Arkwright's Campion
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or early spring
    • may self-seed
Lychnis chalcedonica:  Maltese Cross
    other methods of propagation:  
    • plants may self-sow
Lychnis coronaria:  Rose Campion
    other methods of propagation:  
    • plants will self-seed prodigiously
Mertensia virginica:  Virginia Bluebells
    Mertensia virginica - Virginia Bluebells
    other methods of propagation:  
    • happy plants will self-sow
Onoclea sensibilis:  Sensitive Fern

Paeonia:  Peony

    Paeonia - a pink form
    Note:  divide in late summer i.e. September
Phlox subulata:  Moss Phlox
    Phlox subulata - pink
    other methods of propagation:  
    • start from seed
    • take cuttings
Trillium grandiflorum:  Trillium
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in summer
Viola:  Violet
    other methods of propagation:  
    • will self-sow, sometimes more rampantly than you'd wish
    • take cuttings


DIVISION IN SPRING OR FALL

Many plants are suitable for division in either spring or fall. You, the gardener, get to make the choice about timing to best suit your needs. You can feel safe in tackling this job with any of the plants in the list below.

Achillea:  Yarrow

    Achillea 'Moonshine'
    other propagation methods:  
    • sow seeds (species only) in late winter
    • take tip cuttings in spring or early summer
Aconitum:  Monkshood
    Aconitum carmichaelii 'Arendsii'
    other methods of propagation: 
    • it is possible to start this species from seed
Aegopodium:  Goutweed

Ajuga:  Bugleweed

    Note:  division can be done anytime during the growing season
    other methods of propagation:  
    • cuttings in spring or summer
Alopecurus pratensis:  Meadow Foxtail

Anaphalis margaritacea:  Pearly Everlasting

    other methods of propagation:  
    • take tip cuttings in early summer
    • sow seeds outdoors in situ in late summer
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter

Antennaria dioica:  Pussytoes

Aquilegia:  Columbine

    Aquilegia flabellata var. nana 'Blue Angel'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, after storing seeds dry in fridge for 4 weeks prior to sowing
    • you will find many self-sown seedlings in the garden
Armeria:  Thrift
    Armerica maritima 'Dusseldorfer Pride'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, in a warm growing medium (about 70 deg. F.)
    • take cuttings in spring or fall
Arrhenatherum elatius:  Bulbous Oat Grass
    Arrhenatherum elatius bulbosum - Bulbous Oat Grass

Artemisia lactiflora:  White Mugwort
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take softwood or semi-ripe cuttings in summer
Artemisia ludoviciana:  Silver Sage
    other methods of propagation: 
    • take softwood or semi-ripe cuttings in summer
Artemisia pontica:  Roman Wormwood
    other methods of propagation: 
    • take softwood or semi-ripe cuttings in summer

Aster amellus:  Italian Aster

    other methods of propagation: 
    • take stem cuttings in late spring or early summer
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, stratify for 4-6 weeks
Aster tongolensis:  East Indies Aster
    other methods of propagation: 
    • take stem cuttings in late spring or early summer
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, stratify for 4-6 weeks

Aster novae-angliae:  New England Aster, Michaelmas Daisy

    Aster - a 5-ft-tall unnamed pink form
    other methods of propagation: 
    • take stem cuttings in late spring or early summer
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, stratify for 4-6 weeks
Aster novi-belgii:  New York Aster, Michaelmas Daisy
    other methods of propagation: 
    • take stem cuttings in late spring or early summer
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, stratify for 4-6 weeks
Campanula glomerata:  Clustered Bellflower
    Campanula glomerata - Clustered Bellflower

Campanula lactiflora:  Milky Bellflower

Campanula latifolia:  Great Bellflower

    Campanula latifolia'

Campanula persicifolia:  Peach-Leaved Bellflower
    Campanula persicifolia 'Alba' - white Peach-Leaf Bellflower

Centaurea dealbata:  Persian Cornflower

    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter
Centaurea hypoleuca:  Knapweed
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter
Centaurea macrocephala:  Globe Centaurea
    Centaurea macrocephala - Globe Centaurea

Centaurea montana:  Perennial Bachelor's Button

Chelone obliqua:  Pink Turtlehead

    Chelone - Pink Turtlehead
    Note:  fall division should be done late
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take stem cuttings in early summer

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum:  Ox-Eye Daisy

    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds
    • take cuttings

Cimicifuga:  Bugbane

    Cimicifuga racemosa
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall

Coreopsis:  Tickseed

    Coreopsis - Tickseed
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds indoors in summer or fall in a warm growing medium (70 deg. F.)
    • take cuttings in spring
Coreopsis grandiflora:  Large-Flowered Coreopsis

Coreopsis verticillata:  Thread-Leaf Coreopsis

    Coreopsis verticillata 'Zagreb' from a distanceCoreopsis verticillata 'Zagreb' flower close-up

Dicentra spectabilis:  Old-Fashioned Bleeding Heart

    Dicentra spectabilis 'Alba' - white Bleeding Heart
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in summer
    • take root cuttings in fall
Dicentra x 'Luxuriant':  hybrid Bleeding Heart
    Dicentra x 'Luxuriant' - 'Luxuriant' Fringed Bleeding Heart

Doronicum caucasicum (Synonym: Doronicum cordatum):  Leopard's Bane

    Doronicum caucasicum
    Note:  division is best done immediately after flowering
Echinops ritro:  Globe Thistle
    Echinops ritro - Globe Thistle
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take root cuttings in spring or fall
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter
    • watch for self-sown seedlings
Euphorbia cyparissias:  Cypress Spurge
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take cuttings in spring or summer
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
Euphorbia epithymoides:  Cushion Spurge
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take cuttings in spring or summer
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
Euphorbia myrsinites:  Donkey-Tail Spurge
    Euphorbia myrsinites - Donkey-Tail Spurge
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take cuttings in spring or summer
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
Galium odoratum:  Sweet Woodruff
    Galium odoratum

Geranium 'Johnson's Blue':  Johnson's Blue Geranium
    Geranium 'Johnson's Blue'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Geranium endressii:  Endres Cranesbill
    Geranium endressii
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Geranium himalayense:  Lilac Cranesbill
    Geranium himalayense 'Plenum' - a double form
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Geranium subcaulescens (Synonym: Geranium cinereum spp.subcaulescens):  Rock Geranium
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Helenium autumnale:  Helen's Flower, Sneezeweed
    Helenium autumnale - Sneezeweed, Helen's Flower
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds outdoors in spring or fall
    • take stem cuttings in early summer

Helianthus:  Sunflower

    Helianthus - an unnamed form
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take stem cuttings in early summer
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in late summer or fall
Heliopsis:  False Sunflower
    Heliopsis helianthoides spp. scabra - False Sunflower
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take stem cuttings in late spring
    • may be started from seed
Helleborus:  Hellebore
    Helleborus
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in spring or summer

Hemerocallis:  Daylily

    Hemerocallis 'Fairy Tale Pink'

Heuchera:  Coral Bells

    Heuchera sanguinea - a coral-flowered form

Inula ensifolia:  Sunray Flower, Swordleaf Inula, Elecampane

    Inula ensifolia

Liatris:  Blazing Star, Gayfeather

    Liatris - Blazing Star, Gayfeather
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter, stratify for 4-6 weeks

Lysimachia clethroides:  Gooseneck Loosestrife

    Lysimachia clethroides - Gooseneck Loosestrife
    other methods of propagation:  
    • start from seed
    • take cuttings
Lysimachia punctata:  Yellow Loosestrife
    Lysimachia punctata 'Alexander' - variegated Yellow Loosestrife 'Alexander'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seed in autumn (species only)

Lythrum:  Loosestrife

    other methods of propagation:  
    • take stem cuttings in summer

Mazus reptans:  Creeping Mazus

    Mazus reptans - Creeping Mazus
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seed in autumn

Mentha suaveolens:  Pineapple Mint

Monarda:  Bee Balm, Bergamot

    Monarda - pink Bee Balm

Oenothera tetragona:  Yellow Sundrops
    Oenothera tetragona 'Youngii'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring or fall
    • take softwood cuttings in late spring
Persicaria affinis:  Knotweed, Fleeceflower
    Persicaria affinis 'Border Jewel' - Knotweed, Fleeceflower

Phlox maculata:  Meadow Phlox

    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds
    • take cuttings
Phlox paniculata:  Garden Phlox, Summer Phlox
    Phlox paniculata 'Europa'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds
    • take cuttings

Polemonium:  Jacob's Ladder

    Polemonium caeruleum - Jacob's Ladder
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
Polygonatum odoratum:  Solomon's Seal
    Polygonatum odoratum - Solomon's Seal
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds seeds outdoors in fall
Potentilla nepalensis:  Nepal Cinquefoil
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn
Prunella grandiflora:  Self-Heal

Prunella x webbiana:  Self-Heal

Pulmonaria:  Lungwort

    Pulmonaria - Lungwort
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds
    • take cuttings
Ranunculus:  Buttercup
    other methods of propagation:  
    • plants may self-sow
Rudbeckia:  Coneflower
    Yellow Coneflower
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds indoors in winter
    • sow seeds outdoors in spring or fall

Salvia:  Sage

    Salvia 'East Friesland
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring
    • take tip cuttings in early summer

Saponaria ocymoides:  Rock Soapwort

    other methods of propagation:  
    • take tip or stem cuttings in summer

Sedum kamtschaticum:  Kamschatka Stonecrop

    Sedum kamtschaticum 'Variegatum' - variegated Russian Stonecrop
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take tip cuttings in summer
Sedum spectabile:  Showy Stonecrop

Sedum spurium:  Two-Row Sedum

    Sedum spurium 'Dragon's Blood'

Sisyrinchium angustifolium:  Blue-Eyed Grass
    Sisyrinchium angustifolium

Solidago:  Goldenrod

    other methods of propagation:  
    • may self-sow

x Solidaster luteus:  Solidaster

Stachys byzantina:  Lamb's Ears

    Stachys 'Helen Von Stein' - a large-leaved form
    other methods of propagation:  
    • can be seed-started
    • take cuttings
Stachys macrantha:  Big Betony

Stokesia laevis:  Stoke's Aster

    Stokesia laevis - Stoke's Aster
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
    • sow seeds indoors in winter, stratify for 6 weeks
    • root cuttings taken in late winter or early spring

Thalictrum delavayi:  Yunnan Meadow Rue

    Thalictrum delavayi - Yunnan Meadow Rue

Thymus x citriodorus:  Lemon Thyme

Thymus serphyllum:  Mother-of-Thyme

    Thymus - Thyme

Tiarella cordifolia:  Foamflower

    Tiarella cordifolia - Allegheny Foamflower
    other methods of propagation:  
    • remove rooted runners anytime in the growing season
    • sow seeds outdoors in spring, leaving uncovered to assist germination
Tradescantia:  Spiderwort
    white Tradescantia x andersoniana
    other methods of propagation:  
    • watch for lots of self-sown seedlings
    • take tip cuttings in spring, summer or fall
Trollius:  Globeflower
    Trollius - Globeflower
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in summer

Veronica alpina:  Alpine Speedwell

    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Veronica gentianoides:  Gentian Speedwell
    Veronica gentianoides
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Veronica grandis:  Speedwell
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Veronica incana:  Woolly Speedwell
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Veronica longifolia:  Longleaf Speedwell
    white Veronica 'Icicle'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Veronica spicata:  Spike Speedwell
    Veronica spicata probably 'Red Fox'
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Veronica teucrium:  Hungarian Speedwell
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Veronica virginica (Synonym: Veronicastrum virginicum):  Culver's Root
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn or spring
    • take cuttings in summer
Vinca minor:  Myrtle, Periwinkle
    Vinca minor - Common Periwinkle
    other methods of propagation:  
    • take stem cuttings in summer


DO NOT DIVIDE

For various reasons, some plants are better propagated by means other than division. This is true of the plants in the following list. Only species should be seed propagated, as cultivars will not come "true" to the parent. Cuttings will give you plants identical to the parent, but are a little more difficult to maintain properly until they are ready for replanting. There are many Internet sites that can instruct you in the "how" of these types of propagation.

Adenophora:  LadyBells

    methods of propagation:  
    • if you allow this plant in your garden you will certainly come to regret it
    • basal cuttings in early spring
    • sow seeds in situ when temperatures reach at least 70-75 deg.F., keep moist for 2-3 weeks until germination
    • some sources say to sow seed in autumn
    • may self-sow
Agastache:  Anise-Hyssop, an upright herb, licorice-scented
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in situ in early spring for bloom the same year
    • may self-sow as well but seedlings are easily removed or moved to a new location
    • can also be divided in spring or fall but not necessarily successfully
    • softwood or semi-ripe cuttings in late summer

Alcea:  Hollyhock

    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds indoors in winter (for summer bloom)
    • sow seeds under glass in spring
    • sow seeds outdoors in situ in spring (for bloom the following year)

Anemone pulsatilla:  Pasque Flower

    now known as:  Pulsatilla vulgaris - see below

Artemisia x 'Powis Castle':  Wormwood, Artemisia

    methods of propagation:  
    • take cuttings from new shoots with piece of old wood attached

Artemisia schmidtiana 'Silver Mound':  Silvermound Artemisia

    Artemisia 'Silver Mound - Silver Mound Artemisia
    methods of propagation:  
    • root cuttings in a cold frame

Aurinia saxatilis:  Basket-of-Gold

    Aurinia saxatilis - Basket-of-Gold
    methods of propagation:  
    • seed (species only) - sow seed under glass in spring
    • take cuttings in spring or fall
    • cultivars only - root cuttings in cold frame in early summer
    • will self-sow in suitable locations

Belamcanda chinensis:  Blackberry Lily

    Pardancanthus norrisii - Blackberry Lily
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
    • another source says to sow seeds outdoors in spring (after required 4-6 weeks of stratification)

Campanula medium:  Canterbury Bells

    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds under glass May-June

Catananche caerulea:  Cupid's Dart

    Catananche caerulea - Cupid's Dart
    methods of propagation:  
    • take root cuttings in fall or winter
    • root cuttings in water
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter
    • sow seeds under glass in spring

Centranthus ruber:  Red Valerian, Jupiter's Beard

    methods of propagation:  
    • easy - sow seeds indoors or outdoors in late winter
    • sow seeds under glass in April
    • watch for self-sown seedlings
    • cuttings in cold frame in spring

Cheiranthus cheiri:  Wallflower, a hardy biennial

Clematis:  Clematis

    Clematis 'Pamela Jackman'
    methods of propagation:  
    • take stem cuttings before flowering in spring or early summer

Consolida ambigua:  Larkspur, colours include whites, pinks, purples

    Consolida ambigua - Larkspur
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds under glass in September or March
    • watch for self-sown seedlings to appear

Corydalis lutea:  Corydalis

    Corydalis lutea - Golden Corydalis
    other methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds outdoors in autumn
    • will self-sow prolifically

Crambe cordifolia:  Sea Kale

    methods of propagation:  
    • these are best left undisturbed once established
    • sow seeds outdoors in spring or fall
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter
    • root cuttings taken in fall

Dianthus:  Pinks, Carnation

    bright pink Dianthus
    methods of propagation:  
    • take stem cuttings in summer; cuttings in cold frame in July
    • layering
    • sow seeds outdoors in spring
    • sow seeds indoors in winter
    • seeds under glass in spring or fall

Dictamus:  Gas Plant, Dittany

    Dictamnus albus purpureus
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in late summer
    • another source says to sow seeds in spring (new plants will take 3 years to flower)
    • remove side shoots in August

Digitalis:  Foxglove

    white Foxglove with purple markings
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter
    • sow seeds outdoors in summer for bloom the following year
    • will self-sow readily

Gaura lindheimeri:  White Gaura

    Gaura lindheimeri - White Gaura
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall or spring
    • take cuttings in summer
    • cuttings in cold frame in July

Gypsophila paniculata:  Baby's Breath

    methods of propagation:  
    • take cuttings in spring
    • cuttings in cold frame in summer
    • sow seeds outdoors in spring or fall
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter
Gypsophila repens:  Creeping Baby's Breath
    Gypsophila repens 'Rosea' - Creeping Baby's Breath
    methods of propagation:  
    • cuttings in spring (difficult)
    • cuttings in cold frame in summer
    • sow seeds outdoors in spring or fall
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter

Hedera helix:  Common English Ivy

    methods of propagation:  
    • cuttings in cold frame in late July

Helianthemum:  Rock Rose, Sun Rose

    Helianthemum 'Wisley Pink'
    methods of propagation:  
    • start from seeds
    • take cuttings & root in cold frame in summer

Hesperis matronalis:  Dame's Rocket

    Hesperis matronalis
    methods of propagation:  
    • basal cuttings in spring
    • sow seeds indoors in late winter
    • sow seeds outdoors in summer or fall
    • watch for lots of self-sown seedlings

Hypericum:  St. John's-Wort

    methods of propagation:  
    • take cuttings from cultivar forms in summer
    • cuttings in cold frame in July
    • sow seeds of species forms in autumn
    • take cuttings of species forms in summer

Iberis sempervirens:  Candytuft

    Iberis sempervirens - Candytuft
    methods of propagation:  
    • take tip cuttings in early summer
    • cuttings in cold frame in July
    • sow seeds outdoors in spring or fall

Knautia macedonica:  Crimson Scabious

    Knautia macedonica
    methods of propagation:  
    • take basal cuttings in spring
    • sow seeds in autumn
Lavandula:  Lavender
    Lavandula - Lavender
    methods of propagation:  
    • take tip cuttings (from new growth) in fall
    • semi-ripe cuttings in cold frame in July
Leontopodium alpinum:  Edelweiss
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds when fresh - many will not be viable
    • sow seed under glass early spring

Limonium latifolium:  Statice, Sea Lavender

    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds outdoors in fall, or early spring
    • sow seeds under glass in spring
    • take root cuttings in very early spring
    • root cuttings in water
Linum flavum:  Golden Flax
    methods of propagation:  
    • take stem cuttings in early summer
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in later summer or fall
Linum perenne:  Blue Flax
    Linum perenne - Blue Flax
    methods of propagation:  
    • take stem cuttings in early summer
    • layer side shoots in August
    • sow fresh seeds outdoors in late summer or fall
    • sow seeds under glass in spring
    • will self-sow with abandon
Lunaria annua:  Money Plant, Silver Dollar
    Lunaria annua - Money Plant, Silver Dollar
    methods of propagation:  
    • will self seed prolifically
    • sow seeds under glass in May or June

Lupinus:  Lupine

    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seed when fresh in autumn (species only)
    • sow seed under glass in spring
    • take cuttings from non-flowering side shoots in spring or early summer
Lychnis viscaria:  German Catchfly
    Lychnis viscaria - German Catchfly
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seed in autumn or spring
    • sow seed under glass in spring
    • will self-sow
Malva:  Mallow
    Malva - white Mallow
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn (species only)
    • take cuttings from firm, basal shoots in late spring or summer
Myosotis:  Forget-Me-Not
    methods of propagation:  
    • will self-sow quite prolifically

Myrrhis odorata:  Sweet Cicely

    Myrrhis odorata
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds outdoors in autumn or spring

Oenothera macrocarpa:  formerly Oenothera missouriensis, Ozark Sundrops, Missouri Primrose

    Oenothera missouriensis
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring or fall
    • take softwood cuttings in late spring

Onopordum acanthium:  Giant Thistle, Scotch Thistle

    methods of propagation:  
    • you may want to remove seed heads from this plant to prevent it self-seeding rampantly
    • sow seeds outdoors in autumn or spring
Papaver rhoeas:  Shirley Poppy
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring or fall
    • sow seeds outdoors in April
Papaver somniferum:  Opium Poppy
    Opium Poppy - lavender single-flowered form
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds outdoors in summer, thin the following spring
    • will self-sow prolifically

x Pardancanda norrisii:  Candy Lily

    Pardancanthus norrisii - Blackberry Lily
    similar to Belamcanda chinensis (see above)
    methods of propagation:  
      sow fresh seeds outdoors in fall
    • another source says to sow seeds outdoors in spring (after required 4-6 weeks of stratification)
Perovskia atriplicifolia:  Russian Sage
    methods of propagation:  
    • take softwood cuttings in late spring
Phyteuma scheuchzeri:  Horned Rampion
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn
Platycodon grandiflorus:  Balloon Flower
    Platycodon grandiflorus
    Note:  this plant resents disturbance
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in autumn
    • sow seeds under glass in spring
    • take basal cuttings in summer, preferably with a piece of root attached
Pulsatilla vulgaris (formerly: Anemone pulsatilla):  Pasque-Flower
    Pulsatilla vulgaris 'White Bells'
    Note:  this plant hates root disturbance
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds when fresh
    • sow seeds under glass in summer
    • take root cuttings in winter
Ruta graveolens:  Rue
    methods of propagation:  
    • take semi-ripe cuttings in summer
    • cuttings in cold frame in July
Santolina chamaecyparissus:  Lavender Cotton
    methods of propagation:  
    • take semi-ripe cuttings in summer
    • cuttings in cold frame in July
Sempervivum tectorum :  Hens and Chicks
    Sempervivum tectorum - a red-foliaged form
    methods of propagation:  
    • cuttings 1rosettes) in cold frme in autumn or spring
    • old rosettes die after flowering - replant offsets in summer
Silene schafta:  Schafta Pink
    methods of propagation:  
    • take softwood cuttings in spring
    • cuttings in cold frame in summer
    • sow seed in spring or early autumn
Valeriana officinalis:  Garden Valerian, Over the Garden Fence
    methods of propagation:  
    • sow seeds in spring
Verbascum bombiciferum:  Giant Silver Mullein
    methods of propagation:  
    • root cuttings in water
    • sow seeds in spring or late summer
    • may self-seed
Verbascum chaixii:  Nettle-Leaved Mullein
    methods of propagation:  
    • root cuttings in water

Verbascum phoeniceum:  Mullein, Purple Mullein

    Verbascum phoeniceum - a lavender seedling
    methods of propagation:  
    • root cuttings in water
    • sow seed outdoors in spring


TOP  IMAGE

The image at the top of this page is an edited version of the perennial Hemerocallis 'Lady Fingers', also seen in the border around this page.

'Lady Fingers' is a cultivar in the Spider class of daylilies which, along with Unusual Form daylilies, provides some exciting choices for those gardeners looking for something different. To learn more about these two classes, see images and find suppliers in the province of Ontario just follow the link to our Spider & Unusual Form Daylilies page.

For direct access to the American Hemerocallis Society - Registry of Daylily Cultivars alphabetical lists of cultivars in these classes, just follow the two links below:  


All of our own Gardens By The Bay pages can be accessed by clicking on the links below.


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PLANT PARTNERSHIPS

BLUE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Geranium  |  Iris - Vinca

BULBS    Allium - Hyacinthus  |  Narcissus only  |  Tulipa only  |  Minor Bulbs

BUTTERFLY MAGNETS    Anaphalis - Hemerocallis  |  Liatris - Veronicastrum
DAYLILIES      Spider & Unusual Form

EDGERS    Arabis - Iris  |  Nepeta - Veronica

FOLIAGE PERENNIALS     Alchemilla - Tanacetum

HOSTA    Hosta - all

HUMMINGBIRD-FRIENDLY PERENNIALS    Alcea - Salvia

ORANGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Tulipa

ORNAMENTAL GRASSES    Acorus - Imperata |  Miscanthus - Spodiopogon

PINK PERENNIALS    Achillea - Lilium  |  Lychnis - Veronica

PURPLE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Liatris  |  Polemonium - Veronica

RED PERENNIALS    Achillea - Veronica

SHADE PERENNIALS    Aegopodium - Erythronium  |  Ferns - Polemonium  |  Polygonatum - Vinca

SILVER FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Cerastium    |    Cornus - Limonium    |    Lunaria - Veronica

SIMPLY SPECIAL PERENNIALS    Acanthus - Saxifraga

WHITE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Iris  |  Kalimeris - Yucca

YELLOW PERENNIALS    Achillea - Hypericum  |  Inula - Verbascum

VARIEGATED-FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Acorus - Erythronium  |  Hakonechloa - Lysimachia  |  Miscanthus - Yucca

PLANT PROFILES

Dianthus 'Tiny Rubies'  |  Geranium  |  Geum coccineum  |  Kerria japonica  |  Knautia macedonica

Paeonia tenuifolia  |  Papaver somniferum  |  Rudbeckia  |  Salvia 'East Friesland'

Trollius  |  Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue'

PROPAGATION

DIVISION - SPRING ONLY  |   DIVISION - FALL ONLY  |   DIVISION - SPRING OR FALL  |   DO NOT DIVIDE

FERTILIZATION

BULBS  |   ORNAMENTAL GRASSES  |   PERENNIALS  |   SHRUBS  |   VINES

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