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GARDENS BY THE BAY

a montage of purple flowers

BOTANICAL LATIN


Botanical names are everywhere these days - in garden literature, on plant tags and most especially on the Internet.

Perhaps you're wondering why you need to bother with them at all.  There are several reasons.

  • it's fun and relatively easy to both learn and use botanical names
  • botanical names are the same, all around the world (including on the Internet)
  • common names differ widely from place to place
  • a number of different common names may apply to a single plant but each plant has only one correct botanical name
  • the best gardening books now list plants alphabetically by botanical names, with correct pronunciation
  • botanical names reveal many plant, flower or leaf characteristics

Keep it simple on the start. Try to learn about each new plant as you add it to your collection. You may only want to know a few basics. If you wish to learn more, there are several good links below to take you to other sources of information on this subject. Be sure to bookmark us before you follow those links so you can find your way back here again.

I have a wonderful little reference book called "Gardener's Latin" by Bill Neal. Small in size but huge in information and botanical Latin terminology, it is an excellent addition to your library of garden-related books.

REMEMBER

Botanical Latin should be fun. When it seems like work, take a break and enjoy the numerous flower and garden images on this and other pages on our site. Our links immediately below and a full list at the bottom of this page will take you to many of our other pages about a variety of subjects including but not limited to:

For those ready to dip their toes into the waters of Botanical Latin, all you need to do is keep reading below.


A FEW SIMPLE RULES

GENDER

In Latin, as in many languages, every noun has a gender - masculine, feminine or neuter. Any adjectives that describe them must match that gender. They do so by using different endings. Generally the masculine ending is -um, the feminine ending is -a and the neuter ending is -us. So an adjective used to describe a white masculine noun will be album, to describe a white feminine noun will be alba, and to describe a white neuter noun will be albus. Look at the three examples below to see the various masculine, feminine and neuter endings in use. Of course, nothing is that simple and there are some different endings. Don't let them confuse you at this point. Simply learn new names as you encounter them. The two most notable exceptions are ruber (red) and niger (black).

Asarum europaeum

    Asarum europaeum - European Ginger
    uh-sair´-um   yure-oh-pee´-um

Echinacea purpurea alba:  white Purple Coneflower

    Echinacea purpurea alba
    eh-kih-nay´-see-uh   purr-pure´-ee-uh   al´-buh

Dictamnus albus purpureus:  Gas Plant

    Dictamnus albus purpureus
    dick-tam´-nuss   al´-bus   purr-pure´-ee-us

VOWELS   * * *  this is essential

Each vowel must be in a separate syllable. The only exception is for diphthongs - two vowels which together produce a single sound. Diphthongs are ai, eu, oi and ou. Learn this basic rule before you proceed to other concepts to make learning much easier.

SYLLABLES

In order to pronounce a botanical term properly, you must first divide it into syllables. It is quite simple to do this, provided you remember the rule outlined above with regard to vowels. The examples above show how the botanical names for European Ginger, white Purple Coneflower and Gas Plant are divided into syllables, based on the one-vowel-per-syllable rule.

CONSONANTS - PRONUNCIATION

The consonants b, d, f, h, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, t, x and z are pronounced as in English.

And what about the remaining consonants - c, g, j, v and w? Here it would be helpful if you could think back to your Public School grammar lessons. The letters C and G are soft before the vowels e, i and y but hard before the vowels a, o and u.

HARD "C" EXAMPLES - sounding like "k" Campanula cochlearifolia 'Bavarian Blue' Catananche caerulea Convallaria majalis Coreopsis verticillata 'Zagreb'

From left to right, they are:

  • Campanula:  Bellflower, Harebell  -  kam-pann´-yew-luh
  • Catananche:  Cupid's Dart  -  kat-uh-nan´-kee
  • Convallaria:  Lily-of-the-Valley  -  con-vah-lair´-ee-ah
  • Coreopsis:  Coreopsis, Tickseed  -  core-ee-op´-sis
Other examples include:  
  • Caltha:  Marsh Marigold  -  kal´-thuh
  • Caryopteris:  Bluebeard  -  care-ee-op´-turr-us
  • Codonopsis:  Bonnet Bellflower  -  cod-on-op´-siss
  • Corydalis:  Corydalis  -  core-rid´-uh-liss
  • Cupressus:  Cypress  -  kew-press´-us

The "c" in the above examples is at the beginning of a word.  It will also have a hard sound when it appears in front of a, o and u:

  • within a word
    • Acanthus  -  uh-kann´-thuss
    • Aconitum  -  a-konn-eye´-tum

  • within an epithet
    • caucasica  -  kaw-kay´-sih-kuh
    • cordifolia  -  core-dih-foe´-lee-uh
    • dioicus  -  dye-oh´-ih-kuss
    • divaricatus  -  die-vair-ih-kay´-tuss
    • italicum  -  ih-tal´-ih-kum
    • nudicaule  -  noo-dih-kaw´-lee
    • pontica  -  ponn´-tih-kuh
    • ptarmica  -  tarr´-mih-kuh
    • pyrenaicum  -  peer-ih-nay´-ih-kum

  • within a cultivar name
    • 'Camelliard'  -  ka-mee´-lee-ard
    • 'Compinkie'  -  kom-pin´-kee

SOFT "C" EXAMPLES - sounding like "s" Centaurea macrocephala Ceratostigma plumbaginoides Cimicifuga racemosa

From left to right, they are:

  • Centaurea:  Cornflower  -  sen-tore´-ee-uh
  • Ceratostigma:  Leadwort  -  sir-rat-oh-stig´-muh
  • Cimicifuga:  Bugbane  -  sim-ih-siff´-yew-guh
Other examples include:  
  • Centranthus:  Valerian, Jupiter's Beard  -  sen-tran´-thus
  • Cerastium:  Snow-In-Summer  -  sir-ass´-tee-um
  • Cynara:  Cardoon  -  sigh-narr´-uh

The "c" in the above examples is at the beginning of a word. It will also have a soft sound when it appears before e, i and y:

  • within a word
    • Alcea  -  al´-see-uh
    • Dicentra  -  die-sen´-truh
    • Hyacinthus  -  high-uh-sinn´-thus
    • Sidalcea  -  sid-al´see-uh
    • Tanacetum  -  tann-uh-see´tum

  • within an epithet
    • ludoviciana  -  loo-doe-vih-see-ay´-nuh
    • margaritacea  -  mar-gar-ih-tay´-see-uh
    • persicifolia  -  purr-sih-sih-foe´-lee-uh
    • simplicifolia  -  simm-plih-sih-foe´-lee-uh

  • within a cultivar name
    • 'Citrinum' - sih-try´-num
    • 'Hyacinthina' - high-uh-sinn-thigh´-nuh

HARD "G" EXAMPLES - sounding like "g" Gaillardia x grandiflora - Blanket Flower Galanthus nivalis - Snowdrops Galeobdolon luteum, formerly Lamiastrum galeobdolon Galium odoratum - Sweet Woodruff Gaura lindheimeri - White Gaura

From left to right, they are:

  • Gaillardia:  Blanket Flower  -  gay-larr´-dee-uh
  • Galanthus:  Snowdrops  -  guh-lann´-thuss
  • Galeobdolon:  Yellow Archangel  -  gay-lee-ob´-duh-lonn
  • Galium:  Sweet Woodruff  -  gay´-lee-um
  • Gaura:  White Gaura  -  gaw´-ruh
Other examples include:  
  • Galega:  Goat's Rue  -  gal´-eh-guh
  • Galtonia:  Summer Hyacinth  -  gall-toe´-nee-uh
  • Gomphrena:  Gomphrena  -  gomm-free´-nuh
  • Gunnera:  Giant Gunnera  -  gun´-nurr-uh

The "g" in the above examples is at the beginning of a word. It will also have a hard sound when it appears before a, o or u:

  • within a word
    • Chrysoganum  -  kriss-awg´-uh-num
    • Cimicifuga  -  simm-ih-siff´-yew-guh
    • Ligularia  -  lig-yew-lair´-ee-uh
    • Ophiopogon  -  off-ee-oh-poe´-gon

  • within an epithet
    • angustifolia  -  ann-gust-ih-foe´-lee-uh
    • garganica  -  gar-gann´-ih-kuh
    • gigantea  -  jye-gann´-tee-uh
    • margaritacea  -  mar-gar-ih-tay´-see-uh
    • tangutica  -  tan-gew´-tih-kuh
    • tongolensis  -  tonn-go-lenn´-siss

  • within a cultivar name
    • 'Guizho'  -  ghee´-zoe
    • 'Variegata'  -  vair-ee-uh-gay´-tuh

SOFT "G" EXAMPLES - sounding like "j" Geranium x magnificum Geum x borisii - Avens Gypsophila repens 'Rosea' - Creeping Baby's Breath

From left to right, they are:

  • Geranium:  Cranesbill  -  jerr-ray´-nee-um
  • Geum:  Avens  -  jee´-um
  • Gypsophila:  Baby's Breath  -  jipp-soff´-fill-uh
Other examples include:  
  • Genista:  Broom  -  jen-niss´-tuh
  • Gentiana:  Gentian  -  jen-shee-aye´-nuh
  • Gerbera:  Gerbera Daisy  -  jerr´-burr-uh * often mis-pronounced with a hard "g" rather than the correct soft "g"

The "g" in the above examples is at the beginning of a word. It will also have a soft sound when it appears before e, i or y:

  • within a word
    • Bergenia  -  burr-jhee´-knee-uh
    • Digitalis  -  dij-ih-tay´-liss
    • Erigeron  -  ehr-ridge´-ur-on
    • Eryngium  -  ee-rin´-jee-um

  • within an epithet
    • argentea  -  ahr-jen´-tee-uh
    • novi-belgii  -  noh-veye-bell´-gee-eye
    • plumbaginoides  -  plum-bah-gin-oh-eye´-deez
    • rigescens  -  ridge-ess´-enz

  • within a cultivar name
    • 'Argenteus'  -  ahr-gent´-ee-us
    • 'Aureo-Marginata'  -  or-ee-oh-mar-gin-ay´-tuh

TIP

The above information is more than enough to get you started. Always remember that you can learn as little or as much as you think you need for your purposes. After all, Aunt Martha's purple and white iris will probably not grow any better for your knowing its correct name is Iris x germanica 'Wabash' or its pronunciation is eye´-riss jerr-man´-ih-kuh.

FOR THOSE WHO WANT TO KNOW MORE

For easy reference, we've divided some simple words into categories and placed them in several tables below which include:


COMMON ENDINGS
You will encounter the endings below repeatedly in your gardening experience so learn them first.
LATIN SUFFIXPRONUNCIATIONEXAMPLESPRONUNCIATION
-aeeenovae-angliaenoe´vee  - ann´glih-ee
-aeus, -aea, -aeum ee´-us, ee´-ah, ee´-um europaeumyure-oh-pea´-um
-anus, -ana, -anum ay´nuss, ay´-nah, ay´-num americanaa-mair-ih-kay´nah
-arisair´-issPhalarisfill-air´-iss
-atus, -ata, -atumay´-tuss, ay´-tah, ay´tum divaricatusdye-vair-ih-kay´tuss
-eaee-uhCentaureasenn-tore´-ee-ah
-ensisenn´-sisstongolensistawn-go-lenn´-siss
-eum, -ea, -eus ee-um, ee-ah, ee-uscaeruleumsee-rule´-ee-um
-ius, -ia, -iumee-us, ee-ah, ee-umtenuifoliatenn-yew-ih-foe´-lee-ah
-iaeee-ee or ih-eejuliaeyou´lih-ee
-iiee-eyejackmaniijack-mann´-ee-eye
-inus, -ina, -inumeye´-nuss, eye´nah, eye´numalpinusal-pine´uss
-ioidesee-oh-eye´-deezhistrioideshiss-tree-oh-eye´-deez
-oidesoh-eye-deezclethroidescleth-roe-eye´-deez
-uus, -ua, -uumyou-uss, you-ah, you-um cernuumsir´-new-um

 
 

WORDS THAT REFER TO PLANT PARTS
These prefixes and suffixes can tell you much about a plant, its flowers, foliage or other parts. Learn them early on.
LATINPRONUNCIATIONMEANINGEXAMPLES
phyl-fillreferring to a leafpol-y-phyl´-la - having multiple leaves
caul-callreferring to a stemcau-li-flo´-rus - having flowers on the stems
cocc-coxreferring to a seed or berrycoc-ci´fer-a - having berries
coni-konn-ihreferring to a coneco-ni´fer-us - having cones
flor-florereferring to a flowerflo´-rid-a - free-flowering
foli-foe-leereferring to foliagefo´li-us - leaved
frond-frondreferring to a leaffron-do´sus -
misc-miskreferring to a stemmisc-an´thus
nod-grawreferring to a nodeno-do´-sus - jointed, with joints or nodes
palm-palmreferring to a palm or handpal-ma´-tus - hand-shaped
panicul-pann-ih-kulereferring to a paniclepa-ni-cu-la´-tus - having flowers in a panicle
petiol-peh-tee-olereferring to a petiole or leaf stalkpe-ti-o-la´-tus - with a leaf stalk
racem-ra-semmreferring to a racemera-ce-mo´-sus - with elongated flower racemes
ramosra-mosereferring to branchesra-mo´-sus - branched
rhiz-risereferring to a rootmac-ro-rhi´-zum - large-rooted
scap-skappreferring to a scapesca-po´-sa - with scapes arising at the ground
ven-vennreferring to a veinve-no´-sus - notably veined

 
 

A FEW SIMPLE, DESCRIPTIVE WORDS
Adjectives, called epithets, used in botanical names can tell how plants, their foliage or flowers will look, where they will grow best, when they bloom, etc.
LATINMEANINGEXAMPLESPRONUNCIATION
acuminat-pointed, taperingAllium acuminatuma-cue-mih-nay´-tum
acut-pointed, sharpCalamagrostis x acutifloraa-cu-ti-floe´-ruh
aestiv-referring to summerAsphodelus aestivusee´-stih-vuss
alpestr-referring to alpine regionsMyosotis alpestrisal-pess´-truss
amabil-lovelyAbies amabilisa-ma´-buh-liss
angust-narrowCrocus angustifoliusan-goose-tih-fo´lee-us
aquil-eagle-likeThalictrum aquilegifoliuma-quih-lee´-jih-foe-lee-um
arena-referring to sandDianthus arenariusair-uh-nair´-ee-us
barbat-beardedDianthus barbatus bar-bay´-tuss
bland-mild, pleasantAnemone blandablann´-duh
brevi-shortRanunculus brevifoliusbreh-vi-cau´-liss
campan-referring to a bellPenstemon campanulatuskam-pann-you-lay´-tuss
cernu-bending, droopingAllium cernuumsir´-new-um
caespitos-tufted, clumpedErigeron caespitosussee-spih-toe´-suss
columb-like a doveScabiosa columbariacoll-um-bare´-ee-uh
cucul-referring to a hoodDicentra cucullariacue-cue-lair´-ee-uh
deltoid-triangularAubrieta deltoideadell-toy´-dee-uh
divari-spreading, divergentCaryopteris divaricatadie-vair-ih-kay´-tuh
dumos-bushyAster dumosusdoo-moe´-suss
elat-tallDelphinium elatusah-lay´-tuss
flabell-fan-shapedAquilegia flabellataflah-buh-lay´-tuh
fulg-shiningRudbeckia fulgidafull´-juh-duh

 
 

A FEW BASIC COLOUR REFERENCES
Recognizing colour references can be useful in a number of situations.
LATIN COLOURS PRONUNCIATIONMEANINGEXAMPLES
alb-
 
alb
 
white
 
albiflo´ra - white-flowered
albomargina´ta - having white edges
amethysti-a-muh-thiss´-tuh violet-colouredamethys´ticus
arg-ardge or arg
(depends on context)
silverargen´teus
aure-ore-ee goldenaur´eus
azur-a-zureblueazur´eum
brun-brunnbrownbrun´neus
caerul-see-rulebluishcaeru´lea
caes-seezblue-graycae´sius
cana-cann-uhwhite or graycanalicula´tus;
chrys-krissyellow, goldenchrysan´thus
coccin-cock-sinnredcoccin´eus
cyan-sigh-annbluecya´neus
dealb-day-albwhitishdealba´ta
flav-flay-vuhyellowHemerocallis fla´va
glauc-glockmilky, with a greyish bloomglau´cus
gris-greezgreyishgri´seus
incarn-in-karnreferring to flesh (coloured)incarna´tus
lacti-lack-tuhmilk-colouredlactiflo´rus
leuc-lukewhiteLeucan´themum
lute-lootlight-yellowlu´teus
miniat-minn-ee-at or -ate
(depends on context)
reddishminia´ta
nigr-nigh-gblacknigre´scens,
ni´gricans
the ending determines where the accent lies
niv-nivesnow or the colour whiteni´vea
niva´lis
(the ending determines where the accent lies)
ochr-awkyellowishochroleu´ca
poli-poe-leegreypolifo´lius
rhod-roadred or roserhodan´tha
rose-rowsrose-colouredro´seus
rube-roo-bredrubel´la
rubig-roo-bidgerustrubigino´sus
rubraroo-brahredru´brah
xanth-zanthyellowxanthocar´puss

 
 

COUNTRY OF ORIGIN
Where a plant comes from can give you valuable information about the conditions it prefers.
LATINPRONUNCIATIONMEANINGEXAMPLES
aethiopi- referring to Ethiopia or Africa in general  
calabri- referring to southern Italy 
cambr- referring to Wales 
capens- referring to Cape of Good Hope or any cape 
carpath- referring to the Carpathian Mountains in Europe 
formosan- referring to Formosa (Taiwan) 
gall- referring to Gaul (France) 
graec- referring to Greece 
helvetic- referring to Switzerland 
iber- referring to Spain 
illyr- referring to Greece 
ital- referring to Italy 
japon- referring to Japan 
lusitan- referring to Portugal 
magellan- referring to the Straits of Magellan 
maurit- referring to North Africa 
moldav- referring to Romania 
molucc- referring to the East Indies 
orient- referring to the Orient (in general) 
patagon- referring to Argentina 
persic- referring to Persia (Iran) 
phryg- referring to Asia Minor 
sibir- referring to Siberia 
sikkim- referring to Northern India 
sino- referring to China 
tartar- referring to Central Asia 
zeylan- referring to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) 

 
 

PLANTS NAMED AFTER PEOPLE
When the name of a plant is derived from a proper name:
  • the ending -ii means it was named after the male developer of a cultivar
  • the ending -ae means it was named after the female developer of a cultivar
  • the ending -iana means the flower name commemorates the personal name it is attached to
LATIN SUFFIXPRONUNCIATIONEXAMPLESPRONUNCIATION
-iiee-eyejackmaniijack-mann´-ee-eye
-iaeee-eedanfordiaedan-ford´-ee-ee
-ianaee-ay-nuhalbertianaal-burr-tee-ay´-nuh

 

Have you ever wondered just who those people are who have had plants named after them? You will find just a few of them below.

  • albertiana:  Prince Albert
  • allwoodii:  Mongague Allwood, English Dianthus expert
  • arendsii:  George Arends, German plantsman and plant collector, 1862-1952
  • aubertii:   Père George Aubert, French missionary to China
  • chaixii:  Abbé Dominique Chaix, a French botanist
  • danfordiae:  Mrs. C. G. Danford, 19th. century explorer and famous Crocus collector
  • delavayi:  Père Jean Marie Delavay, 1834-1895, a famous plant-hunter
  • forrestii:  George Forrest, 1873-1932, "Scotland's Indiana Jones of the plant world"
  • fosteriana:  M. Foster, botanist and Cambridge professor
  • jackmanii:  George Jackman, 1801-1869, of Jackman & Sons, British nursery firm, famous English Clematis originator
  • lamarckii:  Jean Bapiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck, 1744-1829
  • ledebourii:  Karl Friedrich von Ledebour, 1785-1851, German-Estonian botanist
  • mussinii:  Count Apollosovich Mussin-Puschkin, 19th. Century Russian plant collector
  • sargentiana:  Charles Sprague Sargent, 1841-1927, founder of the Arnold Arboretum, professor
  • sieboldii:  Philip Franz Barthasar von Siebold, 1796-1866, German physician, who lived in Japan and studied Japanese flora and fauna

For those who would like to learn more about the fascinating exploits of famous plant explorers and contributors to our botanical world, you will find a wealth of information by following the link to the PLANT EXPLORERS site. Once there, clicking on the More link in each of the four sections will take you to further links to people who lived, gardened and explored in each age with details of their contributions and experiences in:  

  • The Golden Age of Botany
  • The Wardian Age
  • The 20th. Century
  • In The Beginning

Often a cultivar name (in single quotation marks) will refer to a place name. Some of those places, followed by the name of the person who made them famous, are below:  

  • Bressingham Nurseries, Bressingham, Norfolk, U.K. (Bloom, Alan)
  • East Lambrook Manor, Somerset (Fish, Margery)
  • Munstead Wood, Surrey, England (Jekyll, Gertrude)
  • Gravetye Manor, West Sussex, England (Robinson, William)
  • Sissinghurst Castle (Sackville-West, Vita & Nicholson, Harold)

STRESS

To determine where the accent will fall, you must first find the second to last syllable (the penult)

  • if it is long, stress it
    • if it is short, stress the syllable before it (the anti-penult)

    We hope to provide a second page of Botanical Terminology with additional information in due course. When we do, you will find a link to that page here.


    VALUABLE LINKS

    If you wish to delve deeper into the subject of botanical terminology and nomenclature, or just want to check out a few terms, follow the links below to a few of my favourite sites.

    DICTIONARY OF BOTANICAL EPITHETS

    With alphabetical links from "abbreviatus" to "yunnanensis" as well as a search capability, this site will amaze you.  Although most references are from alpine sources, you will undoubtedly find nearly everything you need here.

    A SHORT BOTANICAL GLOSSARY

    From the prefix a- meaning "not" or "without" to the noun zygote meaning "the fertilised egg before it undergoes differentiation", this site defines all things botanical.

    GLOSSARY OF ROOTS OF BOTANICAL NAMES

    With alphabetically arranged links from A-Z, this site will be of great assistance. You can also follow the link to THE GARDEN GATE and all its rich resources.

    GARDENWEB GLOSSARY

    This site provides a form which will allow you to search through a glossary of over 4000 terms relating to "botany, gardening, horticulture and landscape architecture".


    All of our own Gardens By The Bay pages can be accessed by clicking on the links below.


    HOME

    GARDEN POETRY  |  GARDEN POETRY MUSE

    GEORGIAN BAY VIEW

    BOTANICAL LATIN - BASICS

    COLOR THEORY

    THE GARDENS

    CORNER GARDEN CONSTRUCTION  |  CORNER GARDEN PLANTING  |  LONG GARDEN

    EAST GARDEN  |  HOSTA GARDEN  |  NORTH GARDEN  |  WINTER GARDENS

    PLANT PARTNERSHIPS

    BLUE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Geranium  |  Iris - Vinca

    BULBS    Allium - Hyacinthus  |  Narcissus only  |  Tulipa only  |  Minor Bulbs

    BUTTERFLY MAGNETS    Anaphalis - Hemerocallis  |  Liatris - Veronicastrum
    DAYLILIES      Spider & Unusual Form

    EDGERS    Arabis - Iris  |  Nepeta - Veronica

    FOLIAGE PERENNIALS     Alchemilla - Tanacetum

    HOSTA    Hosta - all

    HUMMINGBIRD-FRIENDLY PERENNIALS    Alcea - Salvia

    ORANGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Tulipa

    ORNAMENTAL GRASSES    Acorus - Imperata |  Miscanthus - Spodiopogon

    PINK PERENNIALS    Achillea - Lilium  |  Lychnis - Veronica

    PURPLE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Liatris  |  Polemonium - Veronica

    RED PERENNIALS    Achillea - Veronica

    SHADE PERENNIALS    Aegopodium - Erythronium  |  Ferns - Polemonium  |  Polygonatum - Vinca

    SILVER FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Cerastium    |    Cornus - Limonium    |    Lunaria - Veronica

    SIMPLY SPECIAL PERENNIALS    Acanthus - Saxifraga

    WHITE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Iris  |  Kalimeris - Yucca

    YELLOW PERENNIALS    Achillea - Hypericum  |  Inula - Verbascum

    VARIEGATED-FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Acorus - Erythronium  |  Hakonechloa - Lysimachia  |  Miscanthus - Yucca

    PLANT PROFILES

    Dianthus 'Tiny Rubies'  |  Geranium  |  Geum coccineum  |  Kerria japonica  |  Knautia macedonica

    Paeonia tenuifolia  |  Papaver somniferum  |  Rudbeckia  |  Salvia 'East Friesland'

    Trollius  |  Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue'

    PROPAGATION

    DIVISION - SPRING ONLY  |   DIVISION - FALL ONLY  |   DIVISION - SPRING OR FALL  |   DO NOT DIVIDE

    FERTILIZATION

    BULBS  |   ORNAMENTAL GRASSES  |   PERENNIALS  |   SHRUBS  |   VINES

    LINKS

    GARDENS  |   LOCAL GARDENS  |   BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY

    GARDENING BOOKS  |   NON-GARDENING


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