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GARDENS BY THE BAY


Iris 'Night Edition'


FERTILIZATION

PERENNIALS, BULBS, ORNAMENTAL GRASSES, SHRUBS & VINES


Do you know which of your plants need fertilization? And if so, with what and how much? Knowing when, how and whether or not to perform this chore may be vital to getting the best performance from your plants. Different perennials, bulbs and shrubs have different fertilization needs. Check out the individual recommendations below which came from a variety of expert sources.

Heavy Feeders (plants that require fertilization for peak performance) are marked with an asterisk (*).

Do your gardens lack the "Wow-Factor" that makes people take notice? If so, just click on a plant name below. Follow the link to find more detailed information about that particular plant, perhaps its picture, its profile or, even better, ideas for the perfect companions to plant nearby to help it look its best.

FERTILIZATION CHART
FIRST - DO A SOIL TEST
Such a test, administered by you or by a lab, will identify:
  • which nutrients your soil has in abundance
  • which nutrients your soil is deficient in
  • NOTE
    Fertilization recommendations below assume you have soil of reasonable or average fertility.

    BOTANICALCOMMONY/N HOW/WHEN
    AchilleaYarrowyes carefully - avoid excessive nitrogen
    AconitumMonkshood,
    Wolfbane
    yes annually
    Actaea
    formerly
    Cimicifuga
    Black Snakeroot,
    Black Cohosh
    yesregularly
    AjugaBugleweed,
    Carpet Bugle
    yes balanced solution (granular forms can burn)
    AlceaHollyhock yestop dress in spring with compost, manure or a balanced organic fertilizer
    AlliumOrnamental Onionyes mix fertilizer or bone meal into soil before planting OR
    apply when new growth appears
    A. schoenoprasumChives,
    Common Chives
    yesearly, then monthly during growing season
    AmsoniaBlue Staryesregularly
    AnchusaBugloss,
    Italian Bugloss,
    Ox-Tongue,
    Alkanet
    yesafter flowering for second flush
    AnthemisGolden Marguerite,
    Yellow Chamomile
    yeslightly to avoid over-fertilizing
    AquilegiaColumbineyes regular light feedings 20-20-20 half-strength;
    in spring, then monthly with Iron Plus 24-8-16;
    aged compost
    ArmeriaThrift,
    Sea Pink
    yes lightly and only in the poorest soil
    ArtemisiaWormwood,
    Mugwort
    yes lightly; handful soft rock phosphate for root growth;
    avoid over-fertilizing
    AruncusGoatsbeardyes regularly during growing season, slow-release fertilizer annually
    AsclepiasButterfly Weednonot necessary, little fertilizer is required
    AsterAsternosparingly, if at all
    A. dumosusBushy Aster,
    Long-Stalked Aster,
    Rice-Button Aster
    yescomplete (mild) fertilizer
    Astilbe *Astilbe,
    Garden Spirea,
    False Spirea
    YESa heavy feeder that depletes soil quickly and reduces flowering:  
    at planting:  use balanced fertilizer
    when dividing or transplanting:  slow-release 0-20-20
    in spring:
  • sprinkle fast-acting 5-10-5 and repeat later OR
  • handful of slow-release around clump OR
  • balanced organic form
  • AubrietaRock Cressyes monthly with water soluable 24-8-16
    AuriniaBasket-of-Gold,
    Perennial Alyssum,
    Basket of Gold
    yesonly lightly to avoid over-fertilization
    AzaleaAzaleayesearly spring or fall
    PRIMARY CHEMICAL FERTILIZER ELEMENTS
    The Primary Elements (N, P & K) in a chemical fertilizer produce specific results:
  • Nitrogen (N) stimulates growth rate & greens up foliage so it can process nutrients more efficiently
  • Phosphorus (P) stimulates root growth
  • Potassium (K) stimulates flowering and fruiting
  • BaptisiaFalse Indigono little, if any as it "fixes" its own nitrogen
    Belamcanda chinensisBlackberry Lilyyesmonthly during growing season
    BergeniaPig Squeak,
    Elephant Ears
    yesregularly
    BoltoniaBoltonia,
    Bolton's Aster
    no regular fertilization will cause floppiness
    BuddleiaButterfly Bushyes lightly, in spring when new shoots appear, then regularly during bloom season;
    slow-release formulas (Osmocote) for early shoot & leaf development without delaying flower formation;
    over-fertilizing causes excess leaf growth & few flowers
    BULBS

    Like perennials, different bulbs have varying fertilization requirements. Check the individual recommendations for Alliums, Dahlias, Fritillaria, Gladiolus, Hyacinths, bulbous Iris forms, Lilies, Narcissus, Polyanthes and Tulips in the alphabetical list on this page.

    BuxusBox,
    Boxwood
    yes spring or very late fall when dormant
    ORGANIC FERTILIZATION
    Chemical fertilizers can give individual plants a boost but are no substitute for building up soil quality with organic matter, which will eventually decrease the need for chemical nutrients.
    Organics include such materials as dried blood, fish emulsion, feather meal, rock phosphate, bone meal, sunflower seed hull ash and seaweed.  They contain a smaller percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than chemical (synthetic) fertilizers.
    ChrysanthemumChrysanthemum
    Mum
       
    C. coccineum
    now -
    Tanacetum coccineum
    Pyrethrum  
    C. x morifolium
    now -
    Dendranthema x. grandiflorum
    Garden Mum
    Cushion Mum
    yes at time of planting:  fertilize well
    planted spring or summer:  use all-purpose granular formula
    spring transplants:  water with liquid balanced (20-20-20) fertilizer
    monthly:  with liquid fertilizer through mid-late July for vigour
    late July:  stop all fertilization
    C. parthenium
    now -
    Tanacetum parthenium
    Feverfew  
    C. x superbum
    now -
    Leucanthemum x superbum
    Shasta Daisyyesoccasionally
    C. x rubellum
    now -
    Dendranthema zawadskii
    Korean Chrysanthemum  
    ClematisClematisyes early spring: begin a feeding program of:
  • a compost mulch and
  • a handful of bone meal mixed into the soil
    during active growth:
  • general purpose liquid fertilizer every 2 weeks OR
  • granular slow-release fertilizer
    after buds form:  discontinue fertilizing until flowering is finished
    mid-August:  stop all fertilization
    Note:  always use a low nitrogen formulation
  • COMPLETE VS INCOMPLETE FERTILIZERS
    A "complete" fertilizer contains all three main elements - Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium.
    An "incomplete" fertilizer may provide just one or two nutrients i.e. blood meal, bone meal.
    DahliaDahliayes liquid formula occasionally early July - early September
    Delphinium * DelphiniumYESthis is a heavy feeder
    seedlings:  diluted 10-10-10 liquid formula once weekly;
    plants:  in spring when stems are 1" high with a balanced 12-12-12 granular formula; OR
    5-10-5 at planting & 5-10-10 in spring and after bloom;
    generally:  fertilize regularly;
    5-10-10 in early spring and again later during season with complete formula, especially after cutting back first flush, to encourage second bloom
    Dianthus Pinknogenerally not necessary
    D. x allwoodii Modern Pink,
    Allwood's Pink
    yesin spring
    D. arenarius Sand Pinkyesin spring
    D. caesius,
    D.
    gratianopolitanus
    Cheddar Pinkyes in spring
    D. deltoidesMaiden Pinkyes in spring
    D. knappiiYellow Pinkyes in spring
    Dicentra Bleeding Heartyes in spring, then regularly therafter; use an organic mulch
    Dictamnus,
    Fraxinella (old name)
    Gasplant,
    Dittany,
    "true" Burning Bush
    yes lightly with an occasional sprinkling during growing season
    Digitalis Foxgloveyesearly
    EVERYTHING THE SAME METHOD
    Don't have time to compost?  Tired of researching which plants need which fertilizers? You may want to use a method that lets you fertilize everthing in your gardens the same way and with the same formulation.  If so, try this light fertilization program to give a continuous supply of nutrients for healthy plants:
  • use 5-10-5 fertilizer
  • place in small rings around each plant in March
  • repeat twice at 6-week intervals
  • apply again to late-blooming plants in late summer
  • always water after applying fertilizer to remove fertilizer from foliage and prevent burn
  • Echinacea * ConeflowerYESheavy feeder;
    spring:  balanced formula, lightly
    summer:  regularly
    EryngiumSea Holly,
    Eryngo
    noprefers low fertility
    EuphorbiaSpurge yesadd a light application of organic fertilizer to the planting hole
    E. cyparissiasCypress Spurgeno pefers low fertility
    CHEMICAL FERTILIZER CHOICES
    Once you've decided to fertilize your plants chemically, you need to become familiar with the fertilizer types available.  They include:
  • dry granules
  • solid pellets, tablets or spikes
  • liquids or soluble powders
  • Filipendula Meadowsweetyesregularly
    Fritillaria imperialis Crown Imperial Fritillaryyes prepare soil several inches below where bulbs will rest, adding sand for best drainage and to prevent rot;  mulch with compost or feed with well-rotted manure in spring
    Fritillaria meleagrisCheckered Lily, Guinea-Hen Flower, Snake's Head Fritillaryyessee Fritillaria imperialis above
    HOW TO MAKE YOUR CHOICE - I

    GRANULAR FERTILIZER
  • the least expensive per pound of nutrient
  • for both lawns & gardens (new or established)
  • available in 2 distinct forms

    slow-release form
  • more expensive initially but cost-effective in the long run
  • requires fewer applications
  • coating reduces speed with which the nutrients become available
  • supplies a steady supply of nutrients over an extended time
  • minimizes problems related to leaching of nutrients or overdose of some elements, particularly nitrogen

    quick-release form
  • makes most nutrients available just after application
  • lasts one season or less
  • Gaillardia Blanket Flowernonot necessary
    Geranium Hardy Geranium
    Perennial Geranium
    Cranesbill
    yestop-dress in spring with compost, well-rotten manure or a balanced organic fertilizer
    GladiolusGladiolusyes planting:  bonemeal (1 cup per 3 ft of row);
    after flowers form:  balanced formula, general purpose or liquid type, i.e. RX-15, Hyponex, Instant Vigoro, etc.
    HOW TO MAKE YOUR CHOICE - II

    SOLID, PELLETIZED FERTILIZERS
  • compressed particles pre-formed into tiny, bead-like particles, tablets or spikes
  • more costly per pound of nutrient than granular fertilizers
  • many are slow-release which offsets cost
  • place beneath soil surface; esp. useful for container plants, trees or individual plants
  • more convenient to apply than granular fertizilers
  • HederaIvyyes dust base in spring with an all-purpose formula
    Helianthemum Rock Rosenosparingly, if at all
    Helianthus Perennial Sunflowernoseldom or occasionally, if at all
    HeliopsisFalse Sunflower,
    Oxeye,
    Sunflower Heliopsis
    yesregularly
    Hemerocallis Daylilyyes spring only:  handful 10-10-10 scattered around each plant and lightly scratched in; OR
    spring, summer and fall:  12-12-12 lightly once each season
    H. 'Stella d'Oro''Stella d'Oro' Daylily yeslightly and only in the poorest of soils
    Heuchera Coral Bells,
    Alumroot
    yesbalanced formula
    HibiscusHibiscusyesregularly
    H. syriacusRose of Sharon,
    Shrub Althea
    nonot necessary, very lightly, if at all;
    do not overfertilize;
    OR
    spring to fall:  use low phosphorus formula i.e. 104-12 regularly
    HostaHosta,
    Funkia
    yes seedlings:  dilute solution liquid formula once monthly until planting out
    HyacinthusHyacinthyes granular formula just as blossoms fade
    HydrangeaHydrangeayes in spring:   commercial formula or rotted manure/compost
    HypericumSt. John's Wort noonly lightly, if at all; do not overfertilize
    HOW TO MAKE YOUR CHOICE - III

    LIQUID FERTILIZERS
  • concentrates or powders to be mixed with water and appled directly to soil or sprayed onto foliage
  • some contain only nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
  • others are a source of a single trace element
  • an excellent source of readily available nutrients
  • useful for quickly correcting deficiency symptoms and for fertilizing soilless mixes
  • can be used for the same purposes as granular or pelletized fertilizers, but tend to be more costly and require more frequent application
  • IlexHollyyes late winter:  at 1 lb. 10-5-5 per inch of trunk diameter, in circle 3 feet or larger around plants; slow-release formula is best
    early summer:  at 1/2 winter strength
    late summer:  with urea or other nitrogen-rich formula
    IrisIrisyes composted cattle manure or Grow-Rich (5 lbs. per square yard) worked into loosened soil at planting; 4-8-12 in early spring
    I. danfordiaeDanford's Iris - an early spring-blooming bulbous form yesBulb Booster in fall
    I. x germanica Bearded Irisyes slow-release, 3 weeks before planting; superphosphate in spring and bone meal in fall (both as side dressing)
    I. sibiricaSiberian Irisyes 18-21-21 (to mitigate transplant shock)
    COMPOST - "BLACK GOLD"
    Chemical fertilizers may be the simplest solution to boosting flower production but for long-term results nothing beats a regular application of compost to improve the soil itself.  There are numerous methods suggested to produce compost, some more labour-intensive than others, and you must decide how much time and effort you are prepared to invest in the process.  The two naturally-occurring ingredients most commonly used in composting and readily available to every home gardener are:
  • grass clippings
  • fallen leaves

  • How you build and maintain your compost pile will ultimately affect the length of time it takes to produce compost as well as the quality of the finished product itself.
    JuniperusJuniperyes at planting time:  use Plant Start
    SIMPLE SOIL SCIENCE
    Although there are many degrees between them, the basic soils are:  
  • Sand:  very large particles, with big spaces between them, allowing water to pass through too quickly
  • Loam:  full of body, highly workable, nutrient-rich and appropriately moisture-retentive
  • Clay:  very tiny particles, with almost no space between them, allowing water to pass through too slowly

  • For the best soil you can create, choose soil amendments that correct the deficiencies in each of the above.
    KerriaJapanese Kerria Shrubno not necessary, only lightly and occasionally, if at all
    too much will encourage rampant growth
    AMENDMENTS FOR SANDY SOIL
    Although compost is one of the best soil amendments for sand, there are others that can help create the loam in which our plants will thrive.  Such amendments for sand include:  
  • loam
  • organic matter:  manure, seaweed, peat moss, leaves, straw, plant refuse
  • LamiumSpotted Dead Nettleyes when planting:  sprinkle 14-14-14 under roots
    Lilium  *Lily YESa heavy feeder;
    low nitrogen, high phosphorus and potassium formula i.e. 5-18-32
    when planting:  add to hole
    spring:  use as a top-dressing
    new beds:  complete 4-8-12 mixed into new bed, then 3 times annually at 1/2 c. per clump of 4-5 lilies:
  • first at 6"
  • second 1 month later
  • third another month later
  • LimoniumSea Lavender yesapply all-purpose fertilizer monthly
    Linum Flaxno 
    LupinusLupineyes spring & summer:  handful of 5-10-5 sprinkled around plant
    late June:  side-dress with 20-20-20
    L. polyphyllusWashington Lupine yesbone meal spring and fall around plants
    AMENDMENTS FOR CLAY SOIL
    Although compost is one of the best soil amendments for clay, there are others that can help create the loam in which our plants will thrive. Such amendments for clay include:  
  • organic matter:  wood ashes, rotted manure, peat moss
  • sand, esp. coarse or ungraded sand
  • ground limestone
  • gypsum
  • MonardaBee Balmno rarely and only in the poorest soils; generally withhold to prevent rapid spread
    M. Panorama MixBee Balmyes monthly:  water soluble Iron Plus 24-8-16
    MyosotisForget-Me-Not YESfeed liberally
    THE GOAL
    Whether your soil is light sand or heavy clay, or one of the many stages in between, the ultimate goal of using soil amendments is to create humus that will allow the soil to absorb an appropriate amount of water and make the nutrients in the soil more available to the plants growing in it.
    Narcissus Daffodil, Jonquilyesnever use manure
    immediately after bloom:  with 0-20-20 granular formula with 1 Tbsp. around each clump
    when replanting:  add 6" rough compost to bottom of planting hole & 4-5" of "prepared" soil consisting of 1/3 garden soil, sifted into wheelbarrow above 1/3 sifted compost and 1/3 vermiculite (best) or coarse builder's and fertilize again when green tips appear in spring (1 Tbsp. 5-10-5 granular around each clump; OR dig some dried manure into top 1-2" of soil); OR mix Bulb Booster when planting into 2" of soil under bulbs, then when shoots appear in spring add 9-9-6
    Derek Fell recommends high phosphorus fertilizer twice annually:
    in spring before bloom and
    in fall after the first frost
    AMENDMENTS VS. MULCHES
    It is important to know the difference between these terms, to determine how you should use various materials, usually organic, in your garden.
  • Amendment:  material mixed into the soil
  • Mulch:  material added on top of the soil
  • ORNAMENTAL GRASSES

    By and large, Ornamental Grasses, as you will read below, do not require and may actually resent fertilization.

    Ornamental Grassesall - including:
    Arrhenatherum,
    Calamagrostis,
    Carex (a Sedge)
    Chasmanthium,
    Deschampsia,
    Elymus,
    Festuca,
    Hakonechloa,
    Helictotrichon,
    Imperata,
    Miscanthus,
    Molinia,
    Panicum,
    Pennisetum,
    Spartina
    NORick Darke, a renowned grass expert in the United States and author of "The Color Encyclopedia of Ornamental Grasses" as well as "Timber Press Pocket Guide to Ornamental Grasses" states that ornamental grasses do not benefit from fertilization and may, in fact, be negatively affected by it.

    So, unless you want to risk causing overly lush growth, floppiness, loss of shape and diminished effects of foliage variegation, don't even consider adding fertilizer of any sort to your grasses, or grass-like sedges.

    AMENDMENTS
    These are mixed into your soil to improve its quality.
    Some, but definitely not all, amendments also make good mulches. An example is compost. Whether you mix it into your soil or spread it on top and let the earthworms do the work for you, compost is the perfect soil conditioner.
    On the other hand, some amendments make terrible mulches. An example is peat moss. While this is a wonderful, moisture-retentive amendment, it should never be used as a mulch, on the soil surface, where it can form a dry, impenetrable barrier keeping water from entering the soil beneath.
    PaeoniaPeonyyes spring:  bone meal as leaves unfold
    early summer:  immediately after blooming
    late summer:  general fertilizer after bloom
    Larkwhistle formula at planting time:  mix 2/3 topsoil, 1/3 very old manure, 3-4 shovelsful peat moss, 1 of wood ashes and a few trowels of bone meal in planting hole
    caution:  avoid over-fertilization, esp. with nitrogen that can predispose plants to botrytis and other diseases
    PERENNIALS

    Different perennials have varying fertilization requirements. Check individual recommendations for each of the species in the alphabetical list on this page to be sure you are providing exactly what your plants require to provide their peak performance.

    PapaverPoppyno prefers only average fertility
    PenstemonBeard-Tongueyes sparingly, when spring growth starts, with a complete organic fertilizer
    Phlox paniculataGarden Phloxyesearly spring, then regularly thereafter
    at planting:  add compost or peat moss
    Phlox subulataMoss Phlox, Creeping Phloxyes need constant supply of nutrients for strong, steady growth:  always water plants thoroughly after both fertizer applications described below.
    in early spring:  just after stem tips show at soil surface sprinkle 9-12-12 timed-release fertilizer into soil around plants, then mulch the area
    mid-summer:  pull back mulch, sprinkle fertilizer onto soil around plants, then replace mulch
    Polyanthes yes liquid formula every 2 weeks when in growth
    PrimulaPrimrose  recommendations vary from source to source as well as from species to species
    P. x polyanthusPolyanthus Primroseyes side-dress only occasionally
    Pyrethrum - see: Tanacetum coccineumPyrethrum,
    Painted Daisy
    yes use general purpose fertilizer when preparing soil
    MULCHES
    A mulch is applied on the surface of the soil for one or more purposes:
  • to hold in moisture
  • to prevent weed growth
  • to moderate soil temperature
  • to improve the appearance of the soil
  • If you do use any kind of mulch, there are a few things to remember.

  • keep it loose
  • keep it between 2-4" deep
  • keep it away from the crowns of the plants
  • For detailed information on various mulch materials follow the link to the Flower Gardening Made Easy site.

    RhododendronRhododendronyes early in season:  with evergreen fertilizer; do not overfeed
    caution:  never fertilize after June 20
    do not use aluminum sulphate to acidify soil
    Rudbeckia Coneflowernonot necessary
    WINTER MULCH
    The purpose of applying a winter mulch is quite different than for summer mulches as described above.
    Its purpose is definitely not, as some people think, to keep plants toasty warm during winter months.
    A winter mulch is intended to KEEP THE SOIL FROZEN, in order to prevent the plant and its roots from heaving out of the soil during winter freeze and thaw cycles.
    Do not apply a winter mulch too early. Wait until the ground is completely frozen so that it can do its job properly.
    SHRUBS

    While the list on this page is mostly comprised of Perennials, there are a few shrubs included. To date you will find either above or below the fertilizer requirements of Boxwood, Hibiscus, Holly, Japanese Kerria, Rhododendrons and Lilacs.

    SyringaLilacyes at planting:  spread roots of bare-root plants out fully
    add 10-6-4 to backfill at 1/2 handful for 1 quart-sized plant AND
    at 1-2 handsful for 1-gallon-sized plant; fill hole and water in
    every two years:  apply 10-6-4 formula as per instructions
    SOIL & pH LEVELS
    Remember the soil test recommended at the top of this page? In addition to nutrient levels in your soil, this test will also reveal its pH level.
    WHAT IS pH?
    Simply put, pH is a measure of the hydrogen-ion concentration of the soil on a scale from 0 to 14. Soil acidity will register on the lower end of the scale, while soil alkalinity will register on the upper end of the scale. Neutral soil is the area between the two extremes.
    WHY DO YOU NEED TO KNOW ITS LEVEL IN YOUR SOIL?
    The pH level of soil will determine the Availability of Existing Nutrients to anything planted in it.
    Tanacetum coccineum
    formerly Chrysanthemum coccineum
    Pyrethrumyesuse general purpose fertilizer when preparing soil
    Trillium Trillium,
    Wake Robin
    yes plant in late September when going dormant;
    when planting:  mix 1 Tbsp. each muriate of potash & superphosphate into soil at bottom of 3" deep planting hole, add 1/2" soil to keep tuber & roots from contacting fertilizer direct, position tuber horizontally on soil, water thoroughly, fill planting hole with mixture of leaf mold and soil, water again and mulch with shredded leaves or coarse compost
    when shoots first appear AND right after flowers fade:  apply solution of liquid fertilizer i.e. Peter's Blossom Booster 10-30-20
    TulipaTulipyesnever add manure
    when planting:  mix Bulb Booster in 2" of soil under bulb
    spring and fall:  with all-purpose formula or Bulb Booster
    spring:  9-9-6 when shoots show through ground
    DEGREES OF ACIDITY & ALKALINITY
    A large number of perennial plants grow perfectly well in soil in the slightly acidic, through neutral to slightly alkaline range. Nevertheless, you may run across the following terms and should know what they mean in reference to the plants you grow.
  • strongly acidic pH - 4.5 to 5.2
  • medium acidic pH - 5.3 - 6.4
  • slightly acidic pH - 6.5 - 6.9
  • neutral pH - 6.9 - 7.1
  • slightly alkaline pH - 7.1 - 7.5
  • medium alkaline pH - 7.6 - 8.2
  • strongly alkaline pH - 8.3 - 9

  • VeronicaVeronica, Speedwellno not necessary
    VeronicastrumCulver's-root, Bowman's-Root, Blackrootyesregularly
    VincaMyrtleyes water/feed with lawn fertilizer 3x per season
    VINES

    Even vines can differ in their fertilization needs. To date, you can find the following vines in the alphabetical list on this page in order to check their exact requirements:  Clematis, Hedera (Ivy) and Wisteria

    MODIFYING pH LEVELS
    While it possible to alter pH levels to a degree, it is best to grow the plants that do well in the type of soil you are working with. Once a soil test has provided the information you need, use the Internet, a wonderful place for such research, to determine the acidity/alkalinity preferences of various plants.
    WisteriaWisteriayes put coffee grounds around base of plant
    in fall:  after growth stops apply bonemeal
    spring:  superphosphate for better bloom OR
    general formula:  i.e. 5-10-5 (the middle number, phosphorous, higher for flowering)


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    BLUE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Geranium  |  Iris - Vinca

    BULBS    Allium - Hyacinthus  |  Narcissus only  |  Tulipa only  |  Minor Bulbs

    BUTTERFLY MAGNETS    Anaphalis - Hemerocallis  |  Liatris - Veronicastrum
    DAYLILIES      Spider & Unusual Form

    EDGERS    Arabis - Iris  |  Nepeta - Veronica

    FOLIAGE PERENNIALS     Alchemilla - Tanacetum

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    HUMMINGBIRD-FRIENDLY PERENNIALS    Alcea - Salvia

    ORANGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Tulipa

    ORNAMENTAL GRASSES    Acorus - Imperata |  Miscanthus - Spodiopogon

    PINK PERENNIALS    Achillea - Lilium  |  Lychnis - Veronica

    PURPLE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Liatris  |  Polemonium - Veronica

    RED PERENNIALS    Achillea - Veronica

    SHADE PERENNIALS    Aegopodium - Erythronium  |  Ferns - Polemonium  |  Polygonatum - Vinca

    SILVER FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Cerastium    |    Cornus - Limonium    |    Lunaria - Veronica

    SIMPLY SPECIAL PERENNIALS    Acanthus - Saxifraga

    WHITE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Iris  |  Kalimeris - Yucca

    YELLOW PERENNIALS    Achillea - Hypericum  |  Inula - Verbascum

    VARIEGATED-FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Acorus - Erythronium  |  Hakonechloa - Lysimachia  |  Miscanthus - Yucca

    PLANT PROFILES

    Dianthus 'Tiny Rubies'  |  Geranium  |  Geum coccineum  |  Kerria japonica  |  Knautia macedonica

    Paeonia tenuifolia  |  Papaver somniferum  |  Rudbeckia  |  Salvia 'East Friesland'

    Trollius  |  Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue'

    PROPAGATION

    DIVISION - SPRING ONLY  |   DIVISION - FALL ONLY  |   DIVISION - SPRING OR FALL  |   DO NOT DIVIDE

    FERTILIZATION

    BULBS  |   ORNAMENTAL GRASSES  |   PERENNIALS  |   SHRUBS  |   VINES

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