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GARDENS BY THE BAY

Catananche caerulea - Cupid's Dart

PURPLE PERENNIALS & THEIR COMPANIONS - 1


What a rich range of colour the purple perennials add to a garden - violet, lavender, mauve, lilac, amethyst, magenta, royal or imperial purple, the fruity tones of plum, mulberry and grape and the bluish tones of gentian and indigo to mention a few.

Just close your eyes for a moment and picture some of the many other colours that would set off these purples to advantage - yellow, pink, white, orange, selected reds and other purples in flower colour, not to mention the grey, silver, silvery-grey or the many green shades of foliage.


* Watch for the animated hummingbird and butterfly with the plants that attract them. *
The deer icon indicates plants that deer are not usually attracted to.

The best time and method to propagate plants can be found on our image-intensive PROPAGATION page.

To help your plants grow their best, check out our FERTILIZATION page.

To create your own plant partnerships based on tried and true color theory, check out our GARDEN COLOR page.

To see if a particular plant is on this page press Ctrl+F, type in the name, then click the Find button.


ACONITUM

Lucky indeed is the gardener fortunate enough to have room to grow a large patch of these dark beauties. Although they are available in forms having blooms of pink or yellow, most have hooded flowers in the blue to purple range. Keep them in the rear of your borders, far away from young children or pets who might be tempted to eat their highly poisonous blooms.

Aconitum:  violet forms

    in front of:  Filipendula rubra 'Venusta'
Aconitum:  violet or blue & white
    behind:  Phlox paniculata (white) with three Hemerocallis, one yellow, one peach and one light orange, in front of all
      beside:  Monarda (red)
    Aconitum:  deep violet
      behind:  Phlox paniculata (white)
    Aconitum carmichaelii wilsonii:  rich violet-blue, 6', late bloomer
      Aconitum carmichaelii 'Arendsii'
      with:  Cimicifuga 'White Pearl'
        near:  Anemone x hybrida
      For more ideas and instructions on using Monkshood in the garden, check out the links below.

    • blue Monkshood
    • yellow Monkshood

    • ASTER

      What better way to obtain bloom from early in the season to latest fall than with various members of the genus, Aster. The ultimate daisy - these range from the small and early Aster alpinus to the extremely tall and later-blooming New England and New York forms. The purplish tones range from violet-blue, powder blue, pale blue, lavender-blue, lilac, royal purple to deepest purple. They are also available in salmon-pink, pink, white, cerise, rose-pink, ruby red, sky-blue and nearly pure blue. Most asters have a yellow or gold center, although a few have a reddish one.

      Aster alpinus:  purple forms

        in front of:  Artemisia ludoviciana 'Valerie Finnis'
          beside:  Aster x frikartii (which will later provide a contrast to the same A. ludoviciana 'V. Finnis')
        Aster 'Little Blue Boy':  a dwarf form
          beside:  Sedum 'Autumn Joy'
        Aster tataricus:  Tatarian Aster, pale blue to lavender, tallest of all forms
          where:  back of border
            with:  Ornamental Grasses
          You can find more combination ideas for other Aster species and cultivars by following any of the links below.

        • numerous Asters
        • blue Asters
        • pink Asters
        • Asters for shade
        • white Asters

        • AUBRIETA

          For earliest spring color, what can compete with the wonderful purple tones of Rock Cress? Spilling over rock edges or walls, or carpeting a patch of sloping ground, these beauties are wonderful in themselves, but set off all those early-blooming spring perennials and bulbs to perfection. A quick haircut after their bloom has finished will freshen up the evergreen foliage and keep it looking good into fall and winter, when it often produces more sporadic bloom.

          Aubrieta deltoidea:  Rock Cress

            Aubrieta deltoidea 'Large Flowered Mix'
            co-blooms with lovely pink Phlox subulata as seen above
              excellent for:  rock walls, spilling over rock ledges
                also good with:  species bulbs
              You can find more information about growing Rock Cress as well as partnership ideas at the link below.

            • Aubrieta as edgers

            • CAMPANULA

              Is there any group of perennials that produces more blooms than the variable genus, Campanula? If there is I haven’t found it yet. As anyone knows who has tried to count the spent blooms as they are being dead-headed, it is not unusual to reach numbers in the hundreds. When you tire of this calculation (you’ll probably only do it once or twice), you can reach for the shears and give the plant a quick, overall haircut back to below the blossoms and it won’t be long before another flush of flowers follows. Most forms are more subtle than they are big or blowsy, but to soften a grouping of plants in the garden, they have no equal.

              Campanula:  Bellflower, low varieties

                with:  Coreopsis verticillata, Iris sibirica, Astilbe, Geranium, Dianthus, Aquilegia
                  in shade with:  Hosta & ferns
                Campanula:  Bellflower, taller varieties
                  with:  Rosa (pink), Sedum 'Ruby Glow', Geranium psilostemon (a magenta eye-stopper)
                    mid-bed with:  Gypsophila paniculata, Digitalis, Iris sibirica
                  Campanula x 'Birch Hybrid':  a profuse bloomer, 4"x20"
                    Campanula x 'Birch Hybrid'
                    note:  attracts hummingbirds
                      where:  small crevices in rock gardens or walls, tubs, containers, in morning sun
                        with:  blue Festuca or other small ornamental grasses
                          with:  Coreopsis verticillata, especially ‘Moonbeam’
                            under:  Lilium (Oriental or Asiatic)
                              with:  Alcea rosea (hollyhock), Delphinium (Larkspur), Digitalis purpurea, hardy Geranium, Hemerocallis
                                with:  Iris sibirica, Phlox subulata, Phlox paniculata
                                  in light shade with:  Alchemilla mollis, Astilbe, Heuchera
                                Campanula carpatica:  Bellflower, Carpathian Harebell, purple forms
                                  where:  rock gardens, border edging plant
                                    beside:  Heuchera sanguinea, Oenothera missouriensis
                                      between:  Hosta sieboldiana 'Elegans' & Heuchera sanguinea
                                        between:  Veronica & Hosta plantaginea
                                      Campanula carpatica 'Blue Clips':  Bellflower, Carpathian Harebell
                                        Campanula carpatica 'Blue Clips' - 'Blue Clips' Carpathian Harebell, Bellflower
                                        over:  Crocus
                                          under:  wine-red lilies
                                            between:  Heuchera sanguinea & Salvia 'East Friesland'
                                              offset behind:  Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam'
                                            Campanula glomerata:  Clustered Bellflower, deep purple or white, 12-18"
                                              with:  ferns, orangish-apricot tones i.e. Lychnis hybrids
                                            Campanula glomerata 'Superba'
                                              Campanula glomerata 'Superba'
                                              seen above with:  silvery Artemisia 'Valerie Finnis' and yellow Achillea 'Moonshine'
                                                where:  in borders, shaded gardens
                                                  with:  clashing but good combination for hardy Geranium (magenta), Iris sibirica, Doronicum orientale, ferns
                                                    behind:  Dianthus (pink shades)
                                                  Campanula lactiflora:  taller species
                                                    Note:  these can also be white, blue or pink
                                                      with:  Aruncus dioicus, Achillea, Gypsophila paniculata
                                                    Campanula lactiflora:  lavender-blue
                                                      with:  shrub roses
                                                        beside:  Thalictrum aquilegiafolium
                                                      Campanula latifolia:  Great Bellflower, taller species, purple-blue
                                                        Campanula latifolia'
                                                        with:  Aruncus dioicus, Achillea, Gypsophila paniculata
                                                      Campanula persicifolia:  Peach-Leaved Bellflower
                                                        Campanula persicifolia - a purple form
                                                        where:  mid-border, with fine-textured plants, in drifts along stone wall or fence
                                                          behind:  Geranium sanguineum
                                                            in front of:  Delphinium
                                                          Campanula persicifolia:  Peach-Leaved Bellflower, lavender-blue or white
                                                            in light shade with:  Digitalis
                                                              in sun wedged between:  Alchemilla mollis (in front) & old roses (behind)
                                                            Campanula persicifolia:  Peach-Leaved Bellflower, especially purple tones
                                                              with:  Achillea, Lupinus, Papaver orientale, Perovskia atriplicifolia
                                                            Campanula persicifolia 'Telham Beauty':  lavender-blue Peach-Leaved Bellflower, 3'
                                                              Campanula persicifolia - purple and white together
                                                              with:  Campanula persicifolia (white forms)
                                                                combined with:  Campanula persicifolia 'Grandiflora Alba', Digitalis ambigua, & Allium moly
                                                              Campanula portenschlagiana:  Dalmatian Bellflower, a spreading ground cover, 4-6", lavender
                                                                over:  Crocus chrysanthus, Crocus spp, Galanthus nivalis
                                                                  with:  yellow-leaved Hosta
                                                                    with:  drifts of Ajuga, Hosta, Vinca & other ground covers
                                                                  Campanula portenschlagiana 'Resholt':  violet Bellflower
                                                                    where:  part shade or full sun, sprawling over rocks or stone walls
                                                                  The wonderful Bellflowers in their many forms can be used to good advantage in a garden. Check out the possibilities at the following links.

                                                                • blue Bellflowers
                                                                • pink Bellflowers
                                                                • white Bellflowers

                                                                • CATANANCHE

                                                                  If you haven’t yet tried this wonderful perennial, do so in the near future. Floating on wiry stems, the light purplish flowers with a maroon eye have a crisp, papery feel. They can be used to good effect in drifts in the garden or are suitable for dry arrangements as well. My favourite companion is the Spanish Bluebell, or Wood Hyacinth, Hyacinthoides hispanica, formerly known as Endymion hispanicus, and sometimes called Scilla campanulata which blooms before Cupid’s Dart and benefits by the perennial’s growth to hide its own dying foliage and fill the space it leaves when it retreats underground.

                                                                  Catananche caerulea:  Cupid's Dart, lilac-blue

                                                                    Catananche caerulea - Cupid's Dart
                                                                    this papery flower can be seen in the border around this page and directly above
                                                                      where:  in masses, in rock gardens, as frontal plant
                                                                        with:  Achillea, Artemisia stelleriana, Oenothera
                                                                          offset beside:  spring-flowering Endymion hispanicus (to hide dying foliage & fill empty space)
                                                                            with:  Anemone pulsatilla, Anemone sylvestris, Aquilegia, Dicentra
                                                                              in light shade with:  ferns, Helleborus orientalis, Hosta, Myosotis, Phlox divaricata, Phlox stolonifera, Primula
                                                                                with shrubs:  Chaenomeles japonica, Forsythia, Jasminum nudiflorum, Rhododendron, Deutzia gracilis, Weigela
                                                                                  with low-growing shrubs:  Cotoneaster, Berberis
                                                                                    with bushy, tree-like:  Acer palmatum


                                                                                  DELPHINIUM

                                                                                  An eye-catching, stately plant in its many hues, the delphinium clan even boasts some true-blue shades. If summers are cool, they perform at their best. Even when we can’t provide the ideal habitat, we can enjoy them for the brief time they grace our gardens and replace them when necessary so we won’t be long without the wonderful contribution they make to every garden picture.

                                                                                  Delphinium:  violet

                                                                                    behind:  Lilium regale (white) & Achillea (pinkish-lilac, cerise-red or buff yellow 'Great Expectations)
                                                                                      above combination behind:  Sedum 'Dragon's Blood' (wine foliage & reddish-purple flowers)
                                                                                    Delphinium:  dark violet
                                                                                      behind:  Lilium (light yellow forms) and an edging of Alchemilla mollis
                                                                                    Try the links below for additional partnership ideas and information about growing the Delphinium to best advantage.

                                                                                  • blue Delphiniums
                                                                                  • white Delphiniums

                                                                                  • HEMEROCALLIS

                                                                                    Though individual flowers last only one day, supposedly a well-established clump of daylilies can produce more than 300 flowers in a season, sometimes over a period of three to four weeks. If you choose cultivars from the early, mid and late bloom seasons, you can have nearly continuous blooms for three to four months. Below are only a few from the purple range, but there are thousands of others of nearly every hue imaginable.

                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Bali Watercolor':  lavender with silvery watermark above green throat, scape height 35", bloom 9"

                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Bali Watercolor'
                                                                                      this Spider daylily was registered in 2002, Spider Ratio 4.36:1, season M, Fragrant, Rebloomer
                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Black Ice':  black self above yellow green throat, scape height 32", bloom 7.5"
                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Black Ice'
                                                                                      this Spider daylily cultivar was registered in 2000, Spider Ratio 4.13:1, season M
                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Frankie's Fantasy':  dark purple spider self with green throat, scape height 32", bloom 7"
                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Frankie's Fantasy'
                                                                                      this Spider daylily cultivar was registered in 1992, Spider Ratio 4.50:1, season EM, Rebloomer
                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Peacock Maiden':  purple with creamy white eyezone & large green throat, scape height 31", bloom 9.5"
                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Peacock Maiden'
                                                                                      this Unusual Form Crispate daylily cultivar was registered in 1982, season M, Fragrant Rebloomer
                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Thunder Mountain':  purple self above yellow throat, scape height 34", bloom 7.5"
                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Thunder Mountain'
                                                                                      this Unusual Form Crispate daylily cultivar was registered in 2002, season M

                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Lavender Tonic'

                                                                                      combined with: Lythrum virgatum ‘Morden Pink’ & Veronica longifolia 'Sunny Border Blue'
                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Little Grapette':  mauve
                                                                                      combined with: Echinacea 'Bright Star', pink Allium 'Summer Beauty' & yellow Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam'
                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Prairie Blue Eyes':   Hemerocallis 'Summer Wine':  strong violet, 5-1/2" wide flowers
                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Summer Wine'
                                                                                      This cultivar is variously described as light wine-red, clear grape-violet, plum-wine, rose-wine, dusky maroon-red, strong violet and deep wine to quote just a few sources. If you use Google/Images to view pictures of it, you will see that cameras are no more able to capture the reality of the colour than the verbal descriptions are. So my advice would be - buy it, grow it and decide what colour it is yourself. However you describe it, it will make a wonderful addition to your garden and will surely complement anything in its vicinity. Trust me.

                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Train to Venice':  

                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Train to Venice'
                                                                                      this huge-flowered beauty is so stunning it creates significant impact all by itself

                                                                                    A wealth of possibilities awaits. Use the ideas and information at the links below if you are planning to add more Daylilies to your gardens.

                                                                                  • numerous Daylilies
                                                                                  • orange Daylilies
                                                                                  • pink Daylilies
                                                                                  • red Daylilies
                                                                                  • Spider and Unusual Form Daylilies
                                                                                  • white Daylilies
                                                                                  • yellow Daylilies

                                                                                  • HESPERIS

                                                                                    A Phlox paniculata look-alike, Hesperis has similarly rounded flower clusters. However, while Garden Phlox blooms bear five petals, those of Dame's Rocket have only four. This fragrant native wildflower will bring beauty to any setting you can provide, from woodlands to full sun. Self-sown seedlings will keep this short-lived perennial around for years.

                                                                                    Hesperis matronalis:  Sweet Rocket, Dame's Rocket:  2-3'x18-24"

                                                                                      Hesperis matronalis - Dame's Rocket
                                                                                      where:   borders, meadows, woodlands
                                                                                        with:  Tulipa, Paeonia, Iris x germanica
                                                                                          to fill area during dormancy, with:  Artemisia, Achillea


                                                                                        HEUCHERA

                                                                                        If you want plants with all-summer presence in the garden, you can do no better than to choose from this genus. While in bloom, the delicate flowers of Coralbells will delight, with their ability to sway in the slightest breeze on their erect stems. Blooms are sometimes inconspicuous, but the foliage is always of interest. The purple tones mentioned below refer, of course, to the foliage, rather than the flowers.

                                                                                        Heuchera 'Plum Pudding':  pewter-grey foliage underlaid with deep purple, and pinkish flowers, 22"x12"

                                                                                          with:  Heuchera 'Silver Veil'
                                                                                        Heuchera 'Silver Shadows':  purple, metallic leaves, 26"x16"
                                                                                          with:  lime-green Filipendula, deep blue Corydalis 'China Blue'
                                                                                        Heuchera micrantha 'Bressingham Bronze':  improved 'Palace Purple', deepest purple of the type, off-white flowers, 24"x12"
                                                                                          with:  Festuca ovina glauca
                                                                                        Heuchera micrantha 'Palace Purple':  seed-grown strain, 18-24"x12"
                                                                                          where:  best in part shade
                                                                                            with:  pink, lavender, blue and white
                                                                                              amid:  dwarf Iris cristata 'Alba'
                                                                                                in shade with:  Lamium 'Beacon Silver', (blue) Hosta 'Halcyon', Dicentra eximia
                                                                                                  in shade with:   Pulmonaria saccharata, Nepeta 'Blue Wonder', Geranium 'Johnson's Blue'
                                                                                                    with:  Gypsophila paniculata, Artemisia 'Powis Castle', Oenothera missouriensis 'Green Court'
                                                                                                      with:  Liatris spicata, Sedum 'Vera Jameson'
                                                                                                        in front of:  Digitalis, Allium, Artemisia versicolor
                                                                                                      Go to a large nursery and check out the plant tables where the Coral Bells reside to see just how many choices are available these days. Perennial flowers in a garden are fleeting but some of the forms at the links below can provide season-long interest with their wonderful foliage.

                                                                                                    • Coral Bells as edgers
                                                                                                    • pink Coral Bells
                                                                                                    • red Coral Bells
                                                                                                    • Coral Bells with silver foliage
                                                                                                    • white Coral Bells
                                                                                                    • Coral Bells to attract Hummingbirds
                                                                                                    • Coral Bells with variegated foliage

                                                                                                    • INCARVILLEA

                                                                                                      Commonly known as Hardy Gloxinia, Incarvillea is, in fact, not particularly hardy, preferring winter protection north of Zone 5. And it is certainly not a Gloxinia. So what is the attraction with this rosy-purple perennial? It could be the large flowers, their trumpet shapes calling out for your attention. Or it might be the somewhat tropical look of the blooms, held above dark, bold, low-growing green leaves. Unless you have soil that is excessively moist, you might want to give this one a try.

                                                                                                      Incarvillea delavayi:  18-24"x12"

                                                                                                        Incarvillea delavayi - Hardy Gloxinia
                                                                                                        under:  Eremurus
                                                                                                          with groundcover plants:  Arabis, Iberis, Sedum
                                                                                                            in partial shade with:  Asarum, foliage plants


                                                                                                          IRIS

                                                                                                          It is much harder to study and learn about all the different types of Irises than it is to grow them. Most do well in the average garden with little extra care beyond regular maintenance to keep them pest and disease free. And the colours! The flower form! The texture! A large clump will produce a stunning overall appearance while a single flower stalk in a vase for close-up viewing will amaze you with both its simplicity and its complexity.

                                                                                                          Iris x germanica:  tall deep purple

                                                                                                            with:  Cerastium tomentosum
                                                                                                          Iris x germanica:  dark violet
                                                                                                            with:  Geranium clarkei 'Kashmir White'
                                                                                                              beside:  Gypsophila repens 'Rosea'
                                                                                                            Iris:  purple dwarf bearded
                                                                                                              dwarf purple Bearded Iris
                                                                                                              seen in the photograph above with purple Aubrieta and other emerging spring bulbs
                                                                                                            Iris 'Batik':  Border Bearded, royal purple, mottled white, 24"
                                                                                                              with:  Viola, Trollius
                                                                                                            Iris x germanica 'Black Flag':  award winning Tall Bearded Iris, very deep violet
                                                                                                              'Black Flag' Iris
                                                                                                              seen in the photo above with Miscanthus sinensis 'Silberpfeil', Scilla sibirica and buds of a nearby white peony I hoped would bloom with it
                                                                                                            Iris 'Dusky Challenger':  Dykes Medal '92, deepest purple, 40"
                                                                                                              combined with:  lemon-yellow Iris 'New Moon' & white Iris 'Ermine Robe'
                                                                                                            Iris 'Edge of Winter':  deep lavender standards, white falls with touch of pale blue, 37"
                                                                                                              with:  almost any colour
                                                                                                            Iris x germanica 'Wabash':  
                                                                                                              Iris x germanica 'Wabash'
                                                                                                              Is it predominantly purple or white?
                                                                                                                with:  Trollius to echo the yellow highlights of the beard
                                                                                                                  Many companions will contrast with either of the main colours.
                                                                                                                Need inspiration? Read the partnership recommendations of gardening experts at the links below and create the combinations you need to give your garden some extra zip.

                                                                                                              • blue Iris
                                                                                                              • bulbous Iris forms
                                                                                                              • Iris as edgers
                                                                                                              • orange Iris
                                                                                                              • red Iris
                                                                                                              • white Iris
                                                                                                              • yellow Iris
                                                                                                              • Iris with variegated foliage

                                                                                                              • LAVANDULA

                                                                                                                Everyone has surely seen photographs of huge drifts of this perennial herb whose common name reveals the color of its flower. Unless you are allergic to bees, you will want to try to re-create such a drift in your own flower beds, not only for the blooms produced but for the wonderful scent of the foliage as well.

                                                                                                                Lavendula:  Lavender

                                                                                                                  where:  ornamental or herb gardens, rock gardens, as edger
                                                                                                                    with:  Stachys byzantina or Thymus pseudolanuginosus (for textural contrast)
                                                                                                                      in rock gardens with:  dwarf Achillea, Arabis, dry-soil plants
                                                                                                                        with:  Verbena including V. bonariensis
                                                                                                                          in borders with:  Eryngium, Echinops ritro, Achillea, Dianthus, Sedum, Oenothera, Hemerocallis, shrub roses
                                                                                                                            in front of:  Tradescantia (to keep it from flopping forward))
                                                                                                                              with:  roses (shrubs similar in colour to Lavandula or other pinkier shades)
                                                                                                                                with:  low growing sun-loving types of Phlox
                                                                                                                                  with:  Scabiosa columbaria 'Pink Mist'
                                                                                                                                    with:  Yucca
                                                                                                                                      with:  Lilium martagon album, Lychnis (white Campion), Lythrum, Oenothera fruticosa, Oenothera speciosa 'Rosea'
                                                                                                                                    More ideas, companions and information are waiting at the link below.

                                                                                                                                  • blue Lavender
                                                                                                                                  • Lavender with silver foliage

                                                                                                                                  • LIATRIS

                                                                                                                                    The tall, feathery wands of densely-packed flower-heads of the Gayfeathers open from the top down. This alone makes them different from most other perennials. The grass-like foliage provides another point of interest in the gardens they grace. And the fact that they also serve as an attractant for birds and butterflies will make you crave them all the more.

                                                                                                                                    Find the best companions and care information for this genus by following the links below.

                                                                                                                                  • many Liatris forms
                                                                                                                                  • white Liatris forms

                                                                                                                                  • FOR PURPLE PERENNIALS & THEIR COMPANIONS - 2 FOLLOW THE LINK BELOW.


                                                                                                                                    All of our own Gardens By The Bay pages can be accessed by clicking on the links below.


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                                                                                                                                    PLANT PARTNERSHIPS

                                                                                                                                    BLUE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Geranium  |  Iris - Vinca

                                                                                                                                    BULBS    Allium - Hyacinthus  |  Narcissus only  |  Tulipa only  |  Minor Bulbs

                                                                                                                                    BUTTERFLY MAGNETS    Anaphalis - Hemerocallis  |  Liatris - Veronicastrum
                                                                                                                                    DAYLILIES      Spider & Unusual Form

                                                                                                                                    EDGERS    Arabis - Iris  |  Nepeta - Veronica

                                                                                                                                    FOLIAGE PERENNIALS     Alchemilla - Tanacetum

                                                                                                                                    HOSTA    Hosta - all

                                                                                                                                    HUMMINGBIRD-FRIENDLY PERENNIALS    Alcea - Salvia

                                                                                                                                    ORANGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Tulipa

                                                                                                                                    ORNAMENTAL GRASSES    Acorus - Imperata |  Miscanthus - Spodiopogon

                                                                                                                                    PINK PERENNIALS    Achillea - Lilium  |  Lychnis - Veronica

                                                                                                                                    PURPLE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Liatris  |  Polemonium - Veronica

                                                                                                                                    RED PERENNIALS    Achillea - Veronica

                                                                                                                                    SHADE PERENNIALS    Aegopodium - Erythronium  |  Ferns - Polemonium  |  Polygonatum - Vinca

                                                                                                                                    SILVER FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Cerastium    |    Cornus - Limonium    |    Lunaria - Veronica

                                                                                                                                    SIMPLY SPECIAL PERENNIALS    Acanthus - Saxifraga

                                                                                                                                    WHITE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Iris  |  Kalimeris - Yucca

                                                                                                                                    YELLOW PERENNIALS    Achillea - Hypericum  |  Inula - Verbascum

                                                                                                                                    VARIEGATED-FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Acorus - Erythronium  |  Hakonechloa - Lysimachia  |  Miscanthus - Yucca

                                                                                                                                    PLANT PROFILES

                                                                                                                                    Dianthus 'Tiny Rubies'  |  Geranium  |  Geum coccineum  |  Kerria japonica  |  Knautia macedonica

                                                                                                                                    Paeonia tenuifolia  |  Papaver somniferum  |  Rudbeckia  |  Salvia 'East Friesland'

                                                                                                                                    Trollius  |  Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue'

                                                                                                                                    PROPAGATION

                                                                                                                                    DIVISION - SPRING ONLY  |   DIVISION - FALL ONLY  |   DIVISION - SPRING OR FALL  |   DO NOT DIVIDE

                                                                                                                                    FERTILIZATION

                                                                                                                                    BULBS  |   ORNAMENTAL GRASSES  |   PERENNIALS  |   SHRUBS  |   VINES

                                                                                                                                    LINKS

                                                                                                                                    GARDENS  |   LOCAL GARDENS  |   BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY

                                                                                                                                    GARDENING BOOKS  |   NON-GARDENING


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