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GARDENS BY THE BAY


Hemerocallis 'Double Charm'

YELLOW PERENNIALS & THEIR COMPANIONS - 1


Yellow, the "Sunshine of the Garden", can appear in many guises - gold, chrome, lemon, primrose, chartreuse, cream, buff.  Then there are the hyphenated tones - golden-yellow, greenish-yellow, creamy-yellow, mustard-yellow, orangy-yellow, even canary-yellow. And there are degrees of yellow as well - deep, pale, soft, clear.

Care should be taken in choosing the complementary colours of companion plants. Try some of the recommended combinations below both to avoid unattractive pairings and to create dynamic garden pictures.


* Watch for the animated hummingbird and butterfly with the plants that attract them. *
The deer icon indicates plants that deer are not usually attracted to.

The best time and method to propagate plants can be found on our image-intensive PROPAGATION page.

To help your plants grow their best, check out our FERTILIZATION page.

To create your own plant partnerships based on tried and true color theory, check out our GARDEN COLOR page.

To see if a particular plant is on this page press Ctrl+F, type in the name, then click the Find button.


ACHILLEA

Have you ever noticed that the mention of certain plant names immediately brings a particular colour to mind? This is true of the Yarrows which make me think "yellow". While the plant combination ideas under the first heading below might apply to Yarrows of any colour, the remainder are particularly appropriate for the yellow cultivars named.

Achillea:  Yarrow, flat-topped shape

    where:  sunny spots with summer-blooming plants
      foliage contrast with:  bold-leaved perennials & annuals, Ornamental Grasses, Yucca
        shape contrast with:  spiky Salvia
          with:  Coreopsis, Hemerocallis spp, Lilium spp.
        Achillea filipendulina 'Gold Plate';  Fernleaf Yarrow, a deep yellow, to 5' tall
          where:  front or mid-border plant
            with:  Ornamental Grasses
              beside:  deep purple Salvia x superba, blue Lavandula, Alchemilla mollis
                near:  Macleaya cordata (huge and invasive)
                  behind:  Agapanthus patens
                    combined with:  Phlox paniculata (white), Hemerocallis (tawny-coloured) & Aconitum x bicolor
                      in front of:  Alcea rosea (white), with Gypsophila paniculata nearby
                    Achillea filipendulina 'Parker's Variety':  Fernleaf Yarrow, golden-yellow, 3-4' tall
                      with:  Salvia, Lavandula, Alchemilla mollis
                    Achillea x 'Anthea':  primrose yellow fading to cream, only 12-18"x12"
                      with:  almost anything - its colour fits in anywhere
                        with:  Buddleia x 'Lochinch'
                      Achillea x 'Coronation Gold':  mustard-yellow, 3' tall
                        where:  middle of the perennial border
                          near:  Eryngium spp, Campanula spp
                            with:  Salvia x superba & Chrysanthemum x superbum
                              with:  Ornamental Grasses
                                combined with:  Echinacea purpurea 'White Swan' & Eremurus Shelford Hybrids
                                  with above two behind:  Astilbe (red) & Geranium psilostemon (magenta)
                                    long-blooming combination with:  Delphinium 'Bluebird', 'Blue Jay' or 'Summer Skies' & Chrysanthemum x superbum
                                      'Star of Antwerp'
                                    combined with:  Hemerocallis 'Joan Senior', Miscanthus sinensis 'Silberfeder' & Veronicastrum virginicum 'Album'
                                      combined with:  Lavandula 'Munstead', Lilium, Lythrum, Nepeta, Salvia, Veronica (all together)
                                        beside:  Echinops 'Taplow Blue', Cleome 'Helen Campbell'
                                      Achillea x 'Moonshine':  a hybrid Yarrow, soft yellow, 18-24"x12"
                                        Achillea 'Moonshine'
                                        seen above with:  Geranium 'Johnson's Blue', just one of the many companions suggested below
                                          with:  Asclepias tuberosa, Nepeta x faassinii, Nepeta sibirica 'Blue Beauty', Geranium 'Johnson's Blue',
                                            Centranthus ruber 'Roseus'
                                          combined with:  Iris x germanica (cream and blue), Paeonia (pale pink), Linum perenne, Veronica,
                                            Dictamnus albus purpureus (white)
                                          as edging combined with:  Nepeta 'Blue Wonder', Coreopsis 'Moonbeam', Stachys byzantina 'Silver Carpet' &
                                            Arrhenatherum elatius var. bulbosum 'Variegatum' (cream-striped)
                                          with above edging combo in front of:  Lilium & Hemerocallis (both lemon), Artemisia 'Powis Castle',
                                            Delphinium 'Belladonna' (sky-blue), Eryngium, Echinops ritro, Kniphofia (primrose-yellow)
                                          with above 2 combinations in front of:  Rosa 'Harrison's Yellow', Achillea 'Gold Plate',
                                            Helenium (yellow), & Artemisia lactiflora
                                          beside:  Sedum spurium 'Dragon's Blood', Erigeron 'Prosperity', Berberis 'Rosy Glo'
                                            in front of:  Veronica
                                              offset behind:  Platycodon grandiflorus & Chrysanthemum parthenium
                                                offset behind:  Liatris scariosa 'September Glory' & Lythrum 'Robert'
                                                  offset in front of:  Aster novae-angliae & Anemone x hybrida
                                                    offset in front of:  Helictotrichon sempervirens & Salvia 'East Friesland'
                                                      between:  Astilbe x arendsii 'Deutschland' & Monarda didyma 'Cambridge Scarlet' or 'Croftway Pink'
                                                        between:  Hemerocallis 'Golden Gift' & Lupinus
                                                          between:  Stachys byzantina & Salvia 'East Friesland'
                                                            behind:  Ajuga (purple-leaved)
                                                          Achillea 'Summer Pastels':  cream-coloured
                                                            with:  tall Campanula forms, Perovskia atriplicifolia, white Phlox paniculata
                                                          Achillea 'Great Expectations':  a Galaxy Hybrid, to 2', buff-yellow
                                                            combined with:  Helenium (rusty-red), Hemerocallis (any colour) & cream-banded Zebra Grass
                                                          Of course there are Yarrows of many other colours. Follow the links below to find the colour forms indicated.

                                                        • orange Yarrow forms
                                                        • pink Yarrow forms
                                                        • red Yarrow forms
                                                        • Yarrow with silver foliage
                                                        • white Yarrow forms



                                                        • ACONITUM

                                                          If the Yarrows bring the colour yellow to mind, the Monkshoods make me think "purple". But in fact there is even a yellow form as you can see below. I grew it once and found it not to my liking, but have regretted ever since not giving it a longer period of time to grow on me. Or perhaps to keep it as a conversation piece. Maybe I'll give it another try soon.

                                                          Aconitum pyrenaicum:  Yellow Monkshood, a yellow form, 2-3'x2'

                                                            synonym:  Aconitum lamarkii
                                                              with:  Lythrum, Monarda, Gypsophila paniculata, Phlox paniculata (pink)
                                                            Follow the links below for other colour forms of Monkshood and useful information about their growth.

                                                          • blue Monkshood forms
                                                          • purple Monkshood forms



                                                          • ALCEA

                                                            Towering Hollyhocks would be a perfect perennial if only their foliage did not become disfigured by rust, a fungal disease. I recently read, however, that older plants tend to be not only less vigorous but also more susceptible to disease. So grow them from seed and treat them as the biennials they are, enjoying their foliage in the first year, the flowers in the second. Remove plants after they finish blooming, saving some seeds from your favourite forms to sow every year, in sites with at least 6 hours of direct sun daily. Choose from single, semi-double or fully double forms. Keep soil moist until they become established. Never compost any parts of the plant.

                                                            Alcea ficifolia:  Figleaf Hollyhock, Antwerp Hollyhock, soft yellow with deeper yellow centre

                                                              also called:  Alcea rugosa
                                                                echo with:  purple Iris with yellow bee guides, a yellow Hemerocallis i.e. 'Mme. Bellum' or 'Corky' &
                                                                  a yellow-flowered Verbascum bombyciferum
                                                                combined with:  Buddleia 'Red Plume', Echinops ritro & Liatris ligulistylis
                                                              Alcea rosea 'Chater's Double':  Hollyhock, yellow shades
                                                                behind:  Baptisia australis, Paeonia, Dictamnus, Aconitum, Achillea (a 3' yellow form)
                                                                  near:  Gypsophila paniculata, Alcea (tall white forms)
                                                                Let the partnership ideas and information on the following pages spark your sense of creativity in planting these beauties.

                                                              • orange Hollyhock forms
                                                              • pink Hollyhock forms
                                                              • red Hollyhock forms
                                                              • white Hollyhock forms
                                                              • Hollyhocks to attract Hummingbirds



                                                              • ANTHEMIS

                                                                Marguerite and Chamomile are both common names for this yellow-flowered genus, all forms of which prefer lean, well-drained soil and full sun. They are relatively drought-tolerant once established. Dead-heading helps prolong the bloom period and cutting back hard once flower production slows will encourage the growth of fresh new foliage to finish out the season.

                                                                Anthemis tinctoria:  Golden Marguerite, bright yellow, 1-3' tall

                                                                  with:  Alchemilla mollis, Hosta (golden-leaved or golden-marked forms), Iris pallida 'Aureo-Variegata'
                                                                    with blue flowers:  Campanula persicifolia, Gentiana
                                                                      in front of:  Phlox paniculata
                                                                    Anthemis tinctoria 'Kelwayi':  Marguerite, 2-3'x12-18"
                                                                      Anthemis tinctoria 'Kelwayi'
                                                                      among:  larger, denser plants as "filler"
                                                                        with:  Salvia, Geranium spp, Monarda spp.
                                                                          combination in front of:  Monarda didyma 'Croftway Pink' & beside Hibiscus spp. (a bright pink shade)


                                                                        AURINIA

                                                                        Basket-of-Gold is absolutely covered in spring with tiny yellow 4-petalled flowers above somewhat fuzzy gray-green foliage. This perennial is relatively drought-tolerant once established but will not do well in hot, humid summers. Keep your plants compact in size by cutting back by a third after the flowering period is over.

                                                                        Aurinia:  Basket-of-Gold, 8-12"x1-2'

                                                                        The gold colour of these wonderful spring edgers can vary through a wide range of yellow to gold tones. Check out the possibilities and partners at the following link.

                                                                      • Aurinia as edgers



                                                                      • CENTAUREA

                                                                        Centaurea, or Knapweed, has a scaly base beneath the flowers. Full sun to light shade in average to rich, moist but well-drained soil is ideal. Use cut flowers for fresh flower arrangements or for drying. Dead-head regularly to encourage the formation of hew buds. The entire plant can be cut to just above soil level after bloom so new foliage will appear, and perhaps re-bloom in fall with some forms. Older plants can be divided in either spring or fall.

                                                                        Centaurea macrocephala:  Globe Centaurea, 3-4'x24"

                                                                          Centaurea macrocephala - Globe Centaurea
                                                                          with:  garden Mums to take over display after bloom
                                                                            combined with:  Digitalis lanata, Salvia 'May Night' & Campanula persicifolia 'Grandiflora Alba'
                                                                          Follow the links below to other colour forms of Knapweed. The partners you choose to plant with each type will be as different as the types themselves.

                                                                        • blue Knapweed forms
                                                                        • pink Knapweed forms
                                                                        • Knapweed with silver foliage



                                                                        • CEPHALARIA

                                                                          This is a genus of coarse-foliaged, summer-blooming perannials which, because of their size, are especially suited for large gardens. The one below, in particular, commonly called Giant or Yellow Scabious, grows to a height of 6-8 feet. This huge bushy perennial looks like a Pincushion Flower on steroids. Its 2" wide, pale yellows flowers appear atop very tall stems. To create a more compact and bushier specimen, simply pinch back in May or June. Provide it with rich, moist, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. The aromatic foliage, anise-scented, is deeply cut and impressive. Performance may suffer in hot, humid climates although it is hardy to Zone 4. Propagate plants by division in spring or seed in autumn. Seeds will need to be stratified if sown indoors.

                                                                          Cephalaria gigantea:  Giant Scabious, Yellow Scabious, Tatarian Cephalaria, 6-8'x2-4'

                                                                            Yellow Scabious
                                                                            synonym:  Cephalaria tatarica, Cephalaria caucasica, Scabiosa gigantea
                                                                              uses:  good cut flower
                                                                                where:  rear position in large borders, naturalizing in wild gardens, light woodland clearings
                                                                                  among:  large shrubs or trees in mixed borders
                                                                                    nice with:  co-blooming blue- or lavender-flowered or silver-foliaged perennials


                                                                                  CHRYSOGONUM

                                                                                  Commonly called Green-and-gold or Goldenstar, this is a native perennial wildflower whose star-shaped yellow blooms appear from spring to early summer. Usually found in plant lists for woodland gardens it will spread out by rhizomes and runners at a moderate speed. A welcome and cheery addition wherever it is planted, it looks particularly nice wending its way around and under small rocks at a border's edge. Grow in full sun, or partial shade in areas with hot summers, in rich, moist, well-drained soil. Propagate by division in spring or fall.

                                                                                  Chrysogonum virginianum:   Green-and-gold, Goldenstar, Golden Star

                                                                                    Green-and-gold, Goldenstar, Golden Star
                                                                                    seen above weaving through Sedum sieboldii (October Daphne)
                                                                                      where:  full sun to partial shade, woodland edges, sunny spots in shaded gardens
                                                                                        with blue- or purple-flowered plants:  Linum perenne, Gentiana septemfida, Iris sibirica, Nepeta
                                                                                          with:  Campanula poscharskyana
                                                                                            with:  low groundcovers, small spring bulbs
                                                                                              interweaving through other edgers:  Mazus reptans


                                                                                            COREOPSIS

                                                                                            Coreopsis, also known as Tickseed, grows best in full sun with well-drained soil, exposed to the heat it thrives on. Most forms are drought-tolerant once established. Once blossoms fade, cut off to the base of the stalks to keep the overall appearance tidy and to actually prolong the bloom period. Some forms are just too floriferous to cut each flower stalk at its base separately. An easier way for these types is to shear the entire plant by about one-third when spent blooms significantly outnumber new buds.

                                                                                            Coreopsis:  Tickseed

                                                                                              with summer-blooming perennials:  Lavandula, Hemerocallis, Geranium, Achillea, Campanula, Echinacea purpurea
                                                                                            Coreopsis:  early-blooming varieties
                                                                                              with:  Aurinia saxatilis
                                                                                            Coreopsis:  later-blooming varieties
                                                                                              Coreopsis 'Sunray' - a later-blooming form
                                                                                              with:  Rudbeckia, Gaillardia, Geum quellyon, Iris sibirica
                                                                                            Coreopsis grandiflora:  Large-flowered Coreopsis, deep yellow, 1-2'x12"
                                                                                              with:  Chrysanthemum parthenium
                                                                                                beside:  pale orange Alstromeria
                                                                                              Coreopsis grandiflora 'Sunburst'
                                                                                                with:  Lobelia cardinalis, Lysimachia clethroides
                                                                                              Coreopsis verticillata:  Thread-Leaf Coreopsis, 18-36", 2" diameter yellow flowers
                                                                                                with:  dark reds, bright oranges, pale yellow i.e. x Solidaster luteus
                                                                                                  leaf contrast with:  Curtonis or Crocosmia
                                                                                                    with:  Geranium, Achillea, Hemerocallis, Rudbeckia (esp. R. fulgida 'Goldsturm'), Echinacea
                                                                                                      near:  Chrysanthemum pacificum, Stachys byzantina, Artemisia
                                                                                                    Coreopsis verticillata 'Golden Showers':  golden-yellow, 2' tall
                                                                                                      synonym:  Coreopsis verticillata 'Grandiflora'
                                                                                                        lively combined with:   white, blue, red and purple
                                                                                                          "hot" colour schemes with:  scarlet, orange and yellow
                                                                                                            with:  Aster frikartii 'Mönch'
                                                                                                              in front of:   Hemerocallis (for contrast)
                                                                                                                with:  Hemerocallis 'Debbie Ann' to echo its yellow throat
                                                                                                                  beside:  Sedum 'Autumn Joy'
                                                                                                                Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam':  soft yellow, 24" tall
                                                                                                                  Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam'
                                                                                                                  notice the paler yellow shade of this cultivar seen in close-up above
                                                                                                                    restful combinations with:  pastel colours i.e. pink, lavender
                                                                                                                      with:  "cool" shades of blue, pink, red and orange
                                                                                                                        with:  Aster, Iris, Gaillardia pulchella, Echinacea spp, Phlox paniculata, Malva alcea 'Fastigiata' (pink),
                                                                                                                          Festuca ovina glauca (esp. 'Elijah Blue'), Heuchera 'Bressingham Bronze' or 'Palace Purple', Stachys byzantina, Perovskia x atriplicifolia (now Perovskia x superba), Dianthus caesius (D. gratianopolitanus) or Dianthus plumarius, Sedum 'Autumn Joy', Saponaria ocymoides
                                                                                                                        combined with:  Echinacea purpurea 'Bright Star', Hemerocallis 'Little Grapette' (mauve), Allium 'Summer Beauty (pink)
                                                                                                                      Coreopsis verticillata 'Zagreb':  compact (12")  chrome-yellow
                                                                                                                        Coreopsis verticillata 'Zagreb' from a distanceCoreopsis verticillata 'Zagreb' flower close-up
                                                                                                                        plant seen from a distance on the left and the flower in close-up on the right
                                                                                                                          with :  Salvia nemerosa 'Lubeca', Ceratostigma plumbaginoides
                                                                                                                        This is a plant determined to please. Continuous summer-long blooms will find numerous complementary companions as you will see by following the links below.

                                                                                                                      • edging Tickseed forms
                                                                                                                      • orange Tickseed forms
                                                                                                                      • pink Tickseed forms



                                                                                                                      • CORYDALIS

                                                                                                                        Looking somewhat like the Bleeding Heart to which it is related, Corydalis has ferny foliage above which flowers appear on upright stems. Perfect for woodland edges, this perennial will thrive and spread in well-drained but moist soil.

                                                                                                                        Corydalis cheilanthifolia

                                                                                                                          Corydalis cheilanthifolia - Ferny Corydalis
                                                                                                                          this species, with foliage like the Lip Fern, Cheilanthes, would benefit from the same partners as the species below
                                                                                                                        Corydalis lutea:  Golden Corydalis, 8-12"x12" Follow the link to another colour form of Corydalis.

                                                                                                                      • blue Corydalis

                                                                                                                      • COTULA

                                                                                                                        This perennial, commonly known as New Zealand Brass Buttons, does not appear in many of my reference books. It is a creeping groundcover for an open garden site. Its spread can be aggressive. Keep it reined in or plant it between paving stones to curb its enthusiasm.

                                                                                                                        Cotula potentilliana:  New Zealand Brass Buttons, 2"x12"

                                                                                                                          now:  Leptinella potentilliana
                                                                                                                            where:  between paving stones


                                                                                                                          CROCOSMIA

                                                                                                                          Also known as Montbretia, Crocosmia forms clumps of sword-like foliage. Funnel-shaped flowers appear on arching stems above the foliage. Blooms appear in mid-summer. In areas north of Zone 5 they must overwinter indoors. In Zone 5 a deep snow cover will help ensure success with this somewhat exotic-looking beauty.

                                                                                                                          Crocosmia 'Citronella':  Montbretia, apple-green foliage, lemon yellow flowers

                                                                                                                            sometimes called:  'Golden Fleece'
                                                                                                                              in front of:  Buddleia 'Lochinch'
                                                                                                                                behind:  Geranium wallichianum 'Buxton's Variety'
                                                                                                                                  beside:  Digitalis purpurea 'Sutton's Apricot'
                                                                                                                                Want more of this exotic plant in your gardens? Find ideas and inspiration at the link below.

                                                                                                                              • orange Crocosmia forms

                                                                                                                              • CROCUS

                                                                                                                                Every crocus flower has 3 petals and 3 petal-like sepals. There are solid-coloured forms, forms with hints or bold stipes of contrasting colours, forms that bloom in spring and some that bloom in fall.

                                                                                                                                Crocus:  yellow forms

                                                                                                                                Follow the link below to crocuses of every colour imaginable.

                                                                                                                              • many crocus forms

                                                                                                                              • DIANTHUS

                                                                                                                                In a genus dominated by pink-toned flowers, there are, believe it or not, a few yellow forms of Pinks. Provide them with well-drained soil for best results.

                                                                                                                                Dianthus caryophyllus:  Hardy Carnation, Clove Pink, 14" tall, Zone 4

                                                                                                                                  note:  the yellow form is the least fragrant, pink and white the most fragrant
                                                                                                                                Dianthus knappii:  Yellow Dianthus, Yellow Pinks, pale yellow, self-seeding, upright open habit, 18"x12"
                                                                                                                                  combined with:  Sedum 'Rosy Glow' & Euphorbia myrsinites
                                                                                                                                Follow the links below for Pinks of other colours.

                                                                                                                              • edging Pinks forms
                                                                                                                              • pink Pinks forms
                                                                                                                              • red Pinks forms
                                                                                                                              • Dianthus with silver foliage
                                                                                                                              • white Pinks forms

                                                                                                                              • DIGITALIS

                                                                                                                                The colour yellow does not immediately come to mind for this genus. If you want to add something different to your perennial collection, try any of the yellow forms below. Like other forms of Foxglove, these do best in a woodland situation but will adapt elsewhere if soil is moist and well-drained.

                                                                                                                                Digitalis ambigua:  Yellow True Perennial Foxglove, a soft yellow, 2-3'x12"

                                                                                                                                  synonym:  Digitalis grandiflora
                                                                                                                                    where:  borders, woodland gardens
                                                                                                                                      with:  Papaver orientale
                                                                                                                                        with:  Campanula glomerata, Dicentra spp, Hosta, Ferns
                                                                                                                                      Digitalis lutea:  slender spikes, to 3'
                                                                                                                                        where:  perfect in a woodland setting, or in a flower arrangement
                                                                                                                                      Follow the links below to Foxgloves of other colours.

                                                                                                                                    • pink Foxgloves
                                                                                                                                    • white Foxgloves

                                                                                                                                    • EUPHORBIA

                                                                                                                                      This genus is dominated by yellow forms. What we call flowers are actually petal-like bracts defined as "a modified leaf on the stalk or at the base of a flower". The actual flowers of Spurges are insignificant. All forms exude a milky sap when stems or leaves are cut. Contact can cause skin irritation. Wash pruners after use.

                                                                                                                                      Euphorbia:  Spurge, spring & early summer bloomers

                                                                                                                                        with blue flowers:  Geranium pratense, Geranium himalayense, Geranium ibericum, Veronica longifolia,
                                                                                                                                          Veronica austriaca 'Crater Lake Blue', Veronica austriaca spp. teucrium
                                                                                                                                      Euphorbia amygdaloides 'Rubra':  Purple Wood Spurge, 12-18"x24"
                                                                                                                                        where:  groundcover in partial shade, esp. among trees and shrubs
                                                                                                                                          over :  Antennaria dioica
                                                                                                                                            in front of:  Cotinus coggygria 'Royal Purple' & Achillea millefolium 'Salmon Beauty'
                                                                                                                                          Euphorbia amygdaloides var. robbiae:  Mrs. Robb's Spurge, yellow-green
                                                                                                                                            where:  in dry shade of trees
                                                                                                                                              foliage contrast with:  Hosta (large-leaved types), Helleborus, Epimedium
                                                                                                                                            Euphorbia epithymoides:  Cushion Spurge, 12-18"x18"
                                                                                                                                              synonym:  E. polychroma
                                                                                                                                                where:  dry sites; with afternoon shade in the north
                                                                                                                                                  with spring bulbs:  Tulipa, Allium spp.
                                                                                                                                                    with:  Myosotis, Stachys byzantina, Artemisia, Hemerocallis, Aquilegia, Hosta, Heuchera, Geranium
                                                                                                                                                      combined with:  Dicentra spectabilis (pink) & Mertensia virginica
                                                                                                                                                        behind:  Thymus (edger)
                                                                                                                                                          in front of:  drifts of Tulipa (a colour that will complement the yellow-green of the spurge)
                                                                                                                                                            beside:  Iris x germanica
                                                                                                                                                          Euphorbia griffithii:  Griffith's Spurge, 20-36"x24"
                                                                                                                                                            with:  purple and yellow co-bloomers
                                                                                                                                                              with:  plants with purple-red, bronze-brown and gray foliage
                                                                                                                                                            Euphorbia myrsinites:  Myrtle Euphorbia, Donkey-Tail Spurge, 6-10"x18"
                                                                                                                                                              Euphorbia myrsinites - Donkeytail Spurge
                                                                                                                                                              seen above in early spring with purple-flowered Aubrieta
                                                                                                                                                                where:  very dry sites, sunny rock gardens, in rock walls, front border position
                                                                                                                                                                  amid:  Ajuga (especially purple-foliaged forms)
                                                                                                                                                                    with:  dark-leaved dwarf conifers, bright perennials
                                                                                                                                                                      with:  Dianthus spp, Phlox subulata, Phlox bifida, Arabis, Sedum, Aubrieta
                                                                                                                                                                        with:  early-flowering bulbs
                                                                                                                                                                          woven through:  Sedum 'Rosy Glow' (bright pink) & Dianthus knappii (yellow)
                                                                                                                                                                        Euphorbia palustris:  Marsh Spurge, 4'
                                                                                                                                                                          with:  Cynara cardunculus
                                                                                                                                                                        For more partnership ideas follow the link below.

                                                                                                                                                                      • Spurge with silver foliage

                                                                                                                                                                      • GAILLARDIA

                                                                                                                                                                        The Blanket Flowers also have an interesting flower structure, as do other members of the Aster family. Flower heads have "ray" florets of different colours around dense rounded centres of "disk" florets which produce seeds. Long-blooming if dead-headed, they also make good cut flowers.

                                                                                                                                                                        Gaillardia grandiflora:  Blanket Flower

                                                                                                                                                                          where:  hot, dry sites, containers, perennial borders
                                                                                                                                                                            with:  warm-coloured perennials
                                                                                                                                                                              with:  Achillea, Asclepias tuberosa, Chrysanthemum x superbum, Coreopsis (later-blooming forms),
                                                                                                                                                                                Coreopsis 'Moonbeam', Hemerocallis, Kniphofia, Lychnis chalcedonica (scarlet-orange), Salvia (including S. x superba 'East Friesland'), Yucca filamentosa 'Golden Sword'
                                                                                                                                                                            Gaillardia x grandiflora 'Baby Cole':  8" dwarf
                                                                                                                                                                              with:  Hemerocallis 'Thumbellina'
                                                                                                                                                                            Gaillardia x grandiflora 'Goblin':  Blanket Flower, 12", red and yellow flowers
                                                                                                                                                                              echo with:  Berberis thunbergii 'Bonanza Gold' (a dense, compact, bright gold mound)
                                                                                                                                                                            Gaillardia x grandiflora 'Monarch Strain':  24-36"x24"
                                                                                                                                                                              Gaillardia x grandiflora 'Monarch Strain'
                                                                                                                                                                              my favourite Blanket Flower form is seen above; root-pruning every year keeps it coming back in my Zone 5 gardens
                                                                                                                                                                            More colours and colour combinations of Blanket Flowers ae available at the following links.

                                                                                                                                                                          • many Blanket Flower forms
                                                                                                                                                                          • red Blanket Flower forms

                                                                                                                                                                          • GEUM

                                                                                                                                                                            Avens, which blooms in late spring and summer, has deeply divided foliage in a basal rosette. Flowers appear on slender stems above the foliage. Provide evenly moist, well-drained soil in full sun to light shade. Plant away from hot afternoon sun. Cool summers are ideal for best performance.

                                                                                                                                                                            Geum chiloense 'Lady Stratheden':  Chilean Avens, bright golden-yellow double, 24-30"x12"

                                                                                                                                                                              formerly called:  G. quellyon
                                                                                                                                                                                generally with:  dark blue and purple flowers
                                                                                                                                                                                  with:  Brunnera, Myosotis, Rudbeckia hirta

                                                                                                                                                                                Follow the link below for Avens of other colours.

                                                                                                                                                                              • orange Avens forms

                                                                                                                                                                              • HELENIUM

                                                                                                                                                                                Want bright colours and a long bloom period in a mid to rear border position? Try Sneezeweed, also known as Helen's Flower, allegedly named after Helen of Troy. Flower petals are wedge-shaped and toothed at the ends which produces a somewhat lacy appearance. Beware - all parts of this plant are poisonous.

                                                                                                                                                                                Helenium autumnale:  Sneezeweed, Helen's Flower, hybrids from 3-4'x18-24"

                                                                                                                                                                                  with:  Phlox paniculata, Monarda didyma, Aster, Coreopsis, Solidago
                                                                                                                                                                                    with:  ferns, Ornamental Grasses, late-bloomers
                                                                                                                                                                                      with:  Veronica, Aster, Solidago, Phlox paniculata, Monarda didyma, Coreopsis, Veronicastrum
                                                                                                                                                                                    Helenium 'Gold Fox'
                                                                                                                                                                                      beside:  Lythrum salicaria 'Firecandle', crimson Papaver
                                                                                                                                                                                        in front of:  Delphinium (blue)
                                                                                                                                                                                      Helenium 'Hoopesii':  Orange Helenium, 2-3'x18" Helenium autumnale 'Red & Gold Hybrids':  yellow
                                                                                                                                                                                        what:  seed strain of mixed shades, including yellow, orange, red and gold
                                                                                                                                                                                          at pond edge with:  Veronica, Ferns, Grasses
                                                                                                                                                                                            with:  Phlox paniculata, Monarda didyma, Aster, Coreopsis, Solidago, Ornamental Grasses
                                                                                                                                                                                          Helenium autumnale 'Sunball':  bright yellow with a green centre, 4-5'
                                                                                                                                                                                            also called:  Helenium autumnale 'Kugelsonne'
                                                                                                                                                                                              with:  Helenium autumnale 'Brilliant'
                                                                                                                                                                                            Great drifts of this perennial create impact in a garden scene. Follow the links below for more ideas about what to plant nearby and how to grow them well.

                                                                                                                                                                                          • orange Heleniums

                                                                                                                                                                                          • HELIANTHUS

                                                                                                                                                                                            Sunflowers, many of which are annuals, also appear in perennial forms. Sturdy and easy to grow, they have showy flowers with ray florets around dense centers of disk florets like all members of the Aster family. Foliage is coarse-looking. Provide full sun and somewhat moist soil for best performance.

                                                                                                                                                                                            Helianthus:  Sunflower, 5' or more

                                                                                                                                                                                              Helianthus - an unnamed form
                                                                                                                                                                                              this plant came from a gardening friend who did not know the species or cultivar name to help identify it
                                                                                                                                                                                                where:  moist, sunny locations
                                                                                                                                                                                                  with:  airy and small-flowered plants
                                                                                                                                                                                                    with:  Phlox paniculata, Gypsophila paniculata, Aster, Aconitum, Boltonia asteroides, Solidago, Eupatorium
                                                                                                                                                                                                      with:  summer bulbs, Ornamental Grasses
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Helianthus decapetalus:  Thin-Leaved Sunflower, bright-yellow, 4-5'x2-3'
                                                                                                                                                                                                      also called:  Helianthus x multiflorus
                                                                                                                                                                                                        where:  rich, moist soils, at the back of perennials borders
                                                                                                                                                                                                          with:  Phlox paniculata, Solidago, Sedum, Ornamental Grasses
                                                                                                                                                                                                            behind:  Phlox paniculata (white forms)
                                                                                                                                                                                                              beside:  lavender-coloured hardy Aster
                                                                                                                                                                                                                with:  Salvia azurea var. grandiflora
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Helianthus x multiflorus 'Flore-Pleno':  Perennial Sunflower, Many-Flowered Sunflower, bright yellow, 5'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                with:  Ceratostigma plumbaginoides
                                                                                                                                                                                                              Helianthus salicifolius:  Willow-Leaf Sunflower, 6-8'x2'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                where:  rear of perennial border, in rich, moist soils
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  naturalized with:  Ornamental Grasses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Are sunflowers your kind of plant? Try the link below for more ideas and inspiration in their use.

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • more Sunflowers

                                                                                                                                                                                                              • HELIOPSIS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Commonly known variously as False Sunflower, Oxeye and Sunflower Heliopsis, this perennial is a native wildflower that likes average, well-drained soil and full sun. It is the first of the yellow daisies to bloom in summer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                Heliopsis helianthoides spp. scabra:  False Sunflower, ranging from 3-6'x18-24"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Heliopsis helianthoides spp. scabra - False Sunflower
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  with:  summer perennials & grasses
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    with:  Phlox paniculata, Liatris, Veronica, hardy mums, Aster, Hemerocallis, Lythrum, Iris sibirica
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Heliopsis helianthoides 'Loraine Sunshine':  golden-yellow, 2-3', variegated foliage
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Heliopsis 'Loraine Sunshine
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    I predict you'll want this beauty from the moment you first see her with her wonderfully variegated foliage and low stature
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      with:  Cimicifuga 'Black Negligee'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Heliopsis 'Summer Sun':  False Sunflower, 3-4'x18-24", semi-double flowers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      with:  Hemerocallis (red or deep pink), Phlox paniculata, Liatris, Veronica, Aster, Asclepias tuberosa, Lythrum,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Iris sibirica, Garden Mums
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      with:  Miscanthus sinensis 'Morning Light', Miscanthus sinensis 'Strictus'


                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HEMEROCALLIS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The name Hemerocallis comes from the Greek hemera, meaning "day" and kallos meaning "beauty". Individual flowers do last for only one day but the overall bloom period is lengthy - from three to four weeks. The flowers have 6 tepals - 3 true petals and 3 sepals. There are numerous yellow forms, singles and doubles, some fragrant, some re-blooming.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Some of the daylilies below are Spider and Unusual Form Daylilies. Follow the link to learn more about the beautiful cultivars available in these two classes and see images that show their amazing appearance. You will also discover how to find suppliers of these classes in your area.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hemerocallis flava:  clear yellow, the earliest to bloom, 30-36"x24"

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Double Charm':  soft yellow double flowers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Double Charm'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This double-flowered beauty can be seen in the border around this page and in the image at the top of the page.  It was a gift from a generous gardening friend.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'El Desperado':  mustard-yellow with a plum-purple throat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'El Desperado'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      with:  just imagine the possibilities of plant combinations with the beauty above
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Hemerocallis 'Kindly Light':  Spider class daylily, scapes 29" tall, chartreuse flowers, mid-season bloom
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Kindly Light' - a spider-flowered type
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This is the first Spider daylily I added to my beds. Many more are sure to follow.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        To find out more about this class visit our new SPIDER & UNUSUAL FORM DAYLILIES page.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Lady Fingers':  Spider class daylily, yellow green self with green throat, bloom season M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hemerocallis 'Lady Fingers' - a spider-flowered type
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        this Spider daylily cultivar, Spider Ratio 4.80:1, was registered in 1967, scape height 32", bloom 6"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Hemerocallis 'Stella d'Oro':  golden-yellow
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hemerocallis 'Stella d'Oro'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        where:  in perennial borders, containers, on patio or deck
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          behind:  Veronica 'Goodness Grows (a deep purple edger)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            with:  Iris pseudacorus, Syringa, Narcissus poeticus, true Lilium, Aconitum, Echinops ritro, Salvia 'May Night',
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Aster novae-angliae 'Purple Dome', Ceratostigma plumbaginoides
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are Daylilies of numerous other colours and colour combinations. Follow the links below to find the colour forms indicated.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • numerous other Daylilies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • orange Daylilies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • pink Daylilies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • purple Daylilies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • red Daylilies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • Spider and Unusual Form Daylilies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • white Daylilies

                                                                                                                                                                                                                        • HYPERICUM

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          There are perennial St. Johnswort forms as well as shrubs, also known as Aaron's Beard. They have bright yellow blooms from early summer to early fall, depending on type. Shrub forms bloom on the current season's wood, so should be cut back hard in spring. Provide them with full sun to partial shade in average, well-drained soil.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hypericum calycinum:  St. Johnswort

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            with:  Aster x frikartii (blue)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              in front of:  spring-blooming shrubs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Hypericum kalmianum:  Kalm's St. Johnswort, a shrub form
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hypericum kalmianum - a shrub form
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              beside:  Hyacinthus


                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FOR MORE YELLOW PERENNIALS & THEIR COMPANIONS, FOLLOW THE LINK BELOW.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                            All of our own Gardens By The Bay pages can be accessed by clicking on the links below.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                            COLOR THEORY

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            THE GARDENS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            CORNER GARDEN CONSTRUCTION  |  CORNER GARDEN PLANTING  |  LONG GARDEN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            EAST GARDEN  |  HOSTA GARDEN  |  NORTH GARDEN  |  WINTER GARDENS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PLANT PARTNERSHIPS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BLUE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Geranium  |  Iris - Vinca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BULBS    Allium - Hyacinthus  |  Narcissus only  |  Tulipa only  |  Minor Bulbs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BUTTERFLY MAGNETS    Anaphalis - Hemerocallis  |  Liatris - Veronicastrum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DAYLILIES      Spider & Unusual Form

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            EDGERS    Arabis - Iris  |  Nepeta - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FOLIAGE PERENNIALS     Alchemilla - Tanacetum

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            HOSTA    Hosta - all

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            HUMMINGBIRD-FRIENDLY PERENNIALS    Alcea - Salvia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ORANGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Tulipa

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ORNAMENTAL GRASSES    Acorus - Imperata |  Miscanthus - Spodiopogon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PINK PERENNIALS    Achillea - Lilium  |  Lychnis - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PURPLE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Liatris  |  Polemonium - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            RED PERENNIALS    Achillea - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SHADE PERENNIALS    Aegopodium - Erythronium  |  Ferns - Polemonium  |  Polygonatum - Vinca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SILVER FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Cerastium    |    Cornus - Limonium    |    Lunaria - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            SIMPLY SPECIAL PERENNIALS    Acanthus - Saxifraga

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            WHITE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Iris  |  Kalimeris - Yucca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            YELLOW PERENNIALS    Achillea - Hypericum  |  Inula - Verbascum

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            VARIEGATED-FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Acorus - Erythronium  |  Hakonechloa - Lysimachia  |  Miscanthus - Yucca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PLANT PROFILES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Dianthus 'Tiny Rubies'  |  Geranium  |  Geum coccineum  |  Kerria japonica  |  Knautia macedonica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Paeonia tenuifolia  |  Papaver somniferum  |  Rudbeckia  |  Salvia 'East Friesland'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Trollius  |  Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            PROPAGATION

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DIVISION - SPRING ONLY  |   DIVISION - FALL ONLY  |   DIVISION - SPRING OR FALL  |   DO NOT DIVIDE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            FERTILIZATION

                                                                                                                                                                                                                            BULBS  |   ORNAMENTAL GRASSES  |   PERENNIALS  |   SHRUBS  |   VINES

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