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GARDENS BY THE BAY

Hakonechloa macra with Grape Hyacinth

ORNAMENTAL GRASSES & THEIR COMPANIONS - 1


Knowing about ornamental grasses will help you grow them well, in the right location and with the right partners. Learn where they fit in the two basic categories below before adding any to your gardens so you will know what care is required and when. The difference is important and readily available, on our own two grass pages, in new books written specifically on the subject or on other sites on the Internet. Since there are increasing numbers of attractive and interesting ornamental grasses available today we might as well all learn to use them to their best advantage at the outset. Remember - do not fertilize ornamental grasses. None is required and doing so may actually be detrimental to them.

1 - GROWTH HABIT

CLUMPING GRASSES

  • will behave themselves in your garden
  • gradually expand outward but never invasively
  • are always a welcome addition to the garden

RUNNING (SPREADING) GRASSES

  • can quickly become a nuisance, sometimes even a menace
  • can be a beautiful sight in the garden but must be curbed to prevent their invasive spread

2 - GROWTH SEASON

COOL SEASON GRASSES

  • start growing in late winter or early spring
  • flower by early summer
  • go dormant in mid-summer
  • may prefer more moisture than warm-season grasses do
  • require a mid-summer cut-back to ensure fresh foliage for fall
  • division can usually be done in either spring or fall

WARM SEASON GRASSES

  • start growing when temperatures increase in spring
  • flower in summer or fall
  • go dormant in winter
  • most change colour in autumn
  • become dry with the approach of winter and become very light-coloured
  • their tan or wheat shades bring wonderful interest to the winter garden
  • require only a cut-back to near ground level in early spring before new growth commences
  • divide only in spring

You may want to check out the wealth of information that can be found on the BLUESTEM NURSERY site. Be sure to bookmark us before you leave so you can come back to our site again.


* Watch for the animated hummingbird and butterfly with the plants that attract them. *
The deer icon indicates plants that deer are not usually attracted to.

The best time and method to propagate plants can be found on our image-intensive PROPAGATION page.

To help your plants grow their best, check out our FERTILIZATION page.

To create your own plant partnerships based on tried and true color theory, check out our GARDEN COLOR page.

To see if a particular plant is on this page press Ctrl+F, type in the name, then click the Find button.


ACORUS

Sweet Flag is neither a true grass nor a sedge.

Acorus gramineus variegatus 'Ogon':  Golden Variegated Sweet Flag, 9"x24"

    note:  this is one of the best Sweet Flag cultivars with evenly golden-yellow foliage
      where:  prefers full sun to light shade and must be kept moist
        uses:  a good pot or tub plant, edger, groundcover
          between:  Lantana & Santolina
            in front of:  Geum quellyon 'Mrs. Bradshaw'


          ALOPECURUS

          Meadow Foxtail is a cool-season, slowly-spreading grass. Rick Darke suggests cutting plants back to about 5" when flowering begins in order to retain the colour of the foliage. Flowers are of little ornamental value in any case.

          Alopecurus pratensis var. aureus:  Yellow Foxtail Grass, 18-24"x12-24", foliage has golden-yellow stripes and edges

            Alopecurus pratensis var. aureus - Yellow Foxtail Grass
            synonyms:  Alopecurus pratensis 'Aureovariegatus'; A. p. Aureomarginatus', A. p. 'Aureus'
              where:  prefers full sun, except in hot climates where it prefers light or afternoon shade
                note:  height will depend on soil;  2-3" in poor soil where it will "run", 12" or more in rich, loamy soil where it will "clump"
                  uses:  garden filler, or to spill over edges, either alone or in masses
                    with:  spring bulbs
                      with:  other Ornamental Grasses such as Imperata cylindrica 'Rubra'


                    ANDROPOGON

                    Beard Grass is a tall warm season clump-forming grass.

                    Andropogon gerardii:  Big Bluestem, Turkey Foot, 5'x18", powder-blue foliage turning orange to copper red in fall

                      Rick Darke calls this:  "a regal species referred to as "the monarch of the prairie grasses"
                        habit:  strongly upright
                          where:  in full sun and poor soil, preferring a hot and dry site
                            among:  greys and silvers
                              with mauves:  Aster novi-belgii including 'Chequers', 'Combe Rosemary', 'Royal Velvet'
                                with lighter purple tones:  Aster x frikartii 'Monch', 'Flora's Delight'
                                  with yellows:  Rudbeckia fulgida 'Goldsturm'


                                ARRHENATHERUM

                                Bulbous Oat Grass is a cool-season clumping grass.

                                Arrhenatherum elatius bulbosum 'Variegatum':  Bulbous Oat Grass, 12-18"x12"

                                  Arrhenatherum elatius bulbosum - Bulbous Oat Grass
                                  this grass browns out in the heat of mid-summer; cut it back to produce new foliage once cooler temperatures return
                                    plant behind:  summer-flowering plants that will hide it during its dormant phase
                                      uses:  rock garden specimen or in perennial borders
                                        combined with:  Achillea 'Moonshine', Nepeta, Coreopsis 'Moonbeam' & Stachys byzantina 'Silver Carpet'
                                          with:   spring bulbs, or silver or grey-foliaged plants
                                            amid bulbs:  Crocus chrysanthus (snow crocus), Chionodoxa & other small spring bulbs
                                              between:  Achillea 'Moonshine' & Nepeta
                                                near:  Achillea 'Paprika'


                                              CALAMAGROSTIS

                                              Feather Reed Grass is a cool-season clumping grass.

                                              Calamagrostis x acutiflora stricta:  Feather Reed Grass, 4-5'x2'

                                                synonym:  Calamagrostis x acutiflora 'Stricta'
                                                  note:  one of the showiest of flowering ornamental grasses
                                                    uses:  a striking vertical accent, planted in groups, at the rear of a border, cut flowers
                                                      behind:  Hypericum calycinum, Pennisetum alopecuroides especially 'Moudry'
                                                        beside:  Miscanthus sinensis giganteus, Physostegia virginiana 'Vivid', Caryopteris x clandonensis 'Blue Mist'
                                                          between:  Eupatorium purpureum & Hibiscus moscheutos
                                                            offset behind:  Veronica longifolia 'Sunny Border Blue', Hibiscus moscheutos & Boltonia asteroides 'Snowbank'
                                                              in front of:  Miscanthus sinensis 'Graciella', Miscanthus sinensis 'Sarabande'
                                                                behind:  Lythrum virgatum 'Dropmore Purple'
                                                                  beside:  Allium, Miscanthus sinensis 'Gracillimus'
                                                                    between:  Spartina & Miscanthus sinensis 'Gracillimus'
                                                                      in front of:  Miscanthus sinensis 'Zebrinus'
                                                                    Calamagrostis x acutiflora 'Karl Foerster':  Foerster's Reed Grass, 4-5'
                                                                      Calamagrostis 'Karl Foerster'
                                                                      where:  in moist, rich soil, full sun
                                                                        offset behind:  Astilbe arendsii 'Amethyst'
                                                                          offset behind:  Deschampsia caespitosa 'Goldtau'
                                                                            offset in front of:  Miscanthus sinensis 'Variegatus'
                                                                              behind or beside:  Miscanthus sinensis 'Purpurascens'
                                                                            Calamagrostis arundinacea 'Overdam':  Variegated Reed Grass, 3-4', good fall foliage colour
                                                                              Calamagrostis arundinacea 'Overdam' - 'Overdam' Variegated Reed Grass
                                                                              uses:  specimen plant, perennial beds, low screen in shaded areas, dried arrangements
                                                                                where:  sun, partial shade in hot climates
                                                                                  behind:  roses
                                                                                    with:  Aster, Boltonia, Crambe, Eupatorium, Monarda Rudbeckia, Sedum, Veronicastrum
                                                                                      with other grasses:  Sorghastrum nutans 'Indian Steel'


                                                                                    CAREX

                                                                                    Some forms of Sedge are clumping but beware - there are also many "runners" in the genus. Check carefully before you buy. And also be aware that many sedges are only hardy to Zone 7.

                                                                                    Carex elata 'Aurea':  Bowles' Golden Sedge, Zone 5, to 30", graceful

                                                                                      with:  Iris sibirica, especially blue-flowered forms, pink or red Astrantia
                                                                                    Carex glauca:  Blue Sedge, a slowly-creeping form, 6"x6-12"
                                                                                      Carex glauca - Blue Sedge
                                                                                      synonym:  Carex flacca
                                                                                        where:  prefers full sun; plant in masses in moist areas which they prefer
                                                                                          with:  Iris x germanica, Stachys byzantina, Mazus reptans, Phlox subulata, Sedum (yellow forms)
                                                                                            at base of:  Acer palmatum dissectum
                                                                                              with:  Ophipogon planiscapus 'Arabicus', miniature Hosta, ferns & Lysimachia nummularia 'Aurea'
                                                                                                between:  Artemisia abrotanum & Helichrysum 'Mo's Gold'
                                                                                                  offset in front of:  Gypsophila 'Bristol Fairy'
                                                                                                Carex morrowii 'Variegata':  Silver Variegated Japanese Sedge, 18-24"x8-10"
                                                                                                  Carex morrowii 'Variegata'
                                                                                                  uses:  groundcover, mass plantings, under trees
                                                                                                    where:  in shady borders, moist sites, wet meadows
                                                                                                      note:  tolerates both damp and dry conditions as well as shade or sun
                                                                                                        with other shade plants:  Heuchera, Helleborus, Cimicifuga (now reclassified as Actaea)
                                                                                                          beside:  Geranium macrorrhizum
                                                                                                        Carex nigra:  Black-Flowered Sedge, 6-10"x6-12", a spreading but not invasive form
                                                                                                          uses:  groundcover, in pots or tubs, water gardens
                                                                                                            with other blue-gray plants:  Aquilegia, Iris, Lamium
                                                                                                              beside:  Stachys byzantina
                                                                                                            Carex oshimensis 'Evergold':  10"x12", dark green with a broad central creamy-yellow stripe
                                                                                                              watch for a picture here in 2008 if this plant proves hardy in Zone 5
                                                                                                                also known as:  Carex oshimensis 'Aureovariegata', 'Everbrite', 'Old Gold'
                                                                                                                  where:  best in some shade, dislikes hot climates
                                                                                                                    uses:  an accent plant, planted in groups, massed as groundcover, in containers


                                                                                                                  CHASMANTHIUM

                                                                                                                  Re-classification has meant a name change for this genus once commonly called Northern Sea Oats. This warm season clump-forming grass is now correctly known as Wild-oats or wood-oats. One of few grasses that actually do well in shady conditions, this one will even be happy in very dry shade.

                                                                                                                  Chasmanthium latifolium:  Indian wood-oats, River-oats, to 4 feet

                                                                                                                    Chasmanthium latifolium - Wood-oats
                                                                                                                    in front of:  Osmunda claytoniana (Interrupted Fern), Phalaris arundinacea (if anyone still grows this invasive beauty)
                                                                                                                      offset in front of:  Hydrangea quercifolia (Oakleaf Hydrangea)
                                                                                                                        beside:  Deschampsia cespitosa 'Gold Veil' ('Goldschleier') or 'Fairy's Joke', Hystrix patula
                                                                                                                          behind:  Hosta 'Francee' or 'Frances Williams', Carex siderostica 'Variegata', Dicentra spectabilis (white)
                                                                                                                            offset behind:  Adiantum pedatum (Maidenhair Fern), Digitalis grandiflora synonym Digitalis ambigua (yellow Foxglove)


                                                                                                                          DESCHAMPSIA

                                                                                                                          Hairgrass is a cool season clumping grass.

                                                                                                                          Deschampsia cespitosa:  Tufted Hair Grass, 30-36"x12-18"

                                                                                                                            specific epithet is often misspelled:  caespitosa
                                                                                                                              where:  sun or shade
                                                                                                                                in shade with:  ferns, Hosta, other shade and moisture-loving plants
                                                                                                                                  in semi-shade behind:  Corydalis flexuosa 'China Blue' or 'Purple Leaf'
                                                                                                                                    offset behind tall plants:  Veronicastrum virginicum, Digitalis ferruginea
                                                                                                                                      between:  Helictotrichon sempervirens & Hemerocallis 'Stella d'Oro'
                                                                                                                                        behind:  Hemerocallis 'Golden Gift'
                                                                                                                                      Deschampsia cespitosa 'Bronzeschleier':  Bronze Veil Tufted Hairgrass
                                                                                                                                        Deschampsia cespitosa 'Bronzeschleier' - 'Bronze Veil' Tufted Hairgrass
                                                                                                                                        whispy plumes appeared in spite of recently having been moved to a new location above
                                                                                                                                          note:  this is perhaps the best-known selection in the genus, much better for warmer climates than others
                                                                                                                                            with:  please tell us about any pleasing combinations you have created in your gardens with this shorter-statured grass


                                                                                                                                          ELYMUS

                                                                                                                                          Lyme Grass is highly invasive so be sure to contain roots to prevent its spread.

                                                                                                                                          Elymus arenarius:  Lyme Grass, Sea Lyme Grass, to 5' tall x indefinite spread

                                                                                                                                            synonym;  Leymus arenarius
                                                                                                                                              sometimes incorrectly called:  Elymus glaucus
                                                                                                                                                beside:  Alchemilla mollis
                                                                                                                                                  with:  Geranium sanguineum (magenta), Phlox paniculata
                                                                                                                                                    with:  Lythrum virgatum
                                                                                                                                                  There have been changes in this genus, with some forms now moved to the Leymus genus. For more information that might clarify this, simply follow the link below.

                                                                                                                                                • silver foliage Lyme Grass

                                                                                                                                                • FESTUCA

                                                                                                                                                  Fescue is an evergreen, cool-season clumping grass, all forms of which do best in full sun and light soils. Cut them down in early spring to encourage production of new foliage. Divide every 3-4 years to maintain vigour.

                                                                                                                                                  Festuca:  Blue Fescue, under 12"x8-12"

                                                                                                                                                    Fescue Grass
                                                                                                                                                    seen above with Salvia 'East Friesland', Heuchera sanguinea, pink Dianthus & a red Sempervivum tectorum
                                                                                                                                                      uses:  garden accent for both foliage colour and texture, groundcover, rock or trough gardens, in pots or tubs, edger
                                                                                                                                                        with:  plants of different textures & colours
                                                                                                                                                          with:  Sedum 'Autumn Joy', Alchemilla mollis, Imperata cylindrica, Coreopsis verticillata 'Moonbeam'
                                                                                                                                                        Festuca glauca:  Blue Fescue, glaucous- or silvery-blue foliage
                                                                                                                                                          synonyms:  Festuca ovina var. glauce, Festuca cinerea, Festuca cinerea var. glauca
                                                                                                                                                            with:  spring bulbs, plants with pink, blue, mauve or purple foliage or flowers
                                                                                                                                                          There are many named cultivars in this species, some listed below. Make your choice based on size and foliage colour:
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Aprilgrun' - 22"x30", fresh green
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Azurit' - 25"x25", blue-silver, steely-blue,
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Blaufink' - more silver than blue
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Blaufuchs' ('Blue Fox') - 22"x30"similar to 'Blaufink'
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Blauglut' ('Blue Glow') - 25"x30", silvery-blue
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Blausilber' ('Blue-Silver') - 22"x30", blue-silver
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Caesia' - silver-blue
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Elijah Blue' - 22"x30", silvery-blue, a larger and longer-lived form
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Golden Toupee' - 22"x22", yellow leaves with a blue cast
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Harz' - 22"x30", blue-green with purplish tips, sometimes called dull deep blue
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Mereblau' - sea-green with green overtones or undertones
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Seeigel' ('Sea Urchin') - 15"x22", extremely fine-textured olive-green
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Solling' - silvery-grey
                                                                                                                                                          • 'Silbersee' ('Silver Sea' or 'Severn Seas') - 15"x20", dwarf, intense silvery-blue
                                                                                                                                                          There is more information about this genus and partnership suggestions at the link below.

                                                                                                                                                        • silver foliage Fescue

                                                                                                                                                        • HAKONECHLOA

                                                                                                                                                          Hakone Grass is a slowly-spreading, non-invasive beauty, wonderful as an edger in large drifts. If you have any shade in your garden, you'll want to try any of the forms below immediately.

                                                                                                                                                          Hakonechloa macra:  Hakone Grass, 18-24"x24"

                                                                                                                                                            where:  shady sites, groundcover under tall trees
                                                                                                                                                              uses:  alone or in masses, in pots or tubs, on slopes, spilling over rock edges, oriental gardens
                                                                                                                                                                in shade with:  ferns, Hosta
                                                                                                                                                                  with:  Imperata cylindrica, Pulmonaria longifolia 'Bertram Anderson'
                                                                                                                                                                    behind:  Hosta x tardiana 'Halcyon'
                                                                                                                                                                  Hakonechloa macra 'Alboaurea':  variegated rich golden yellow & green with occasional flecks, streaks or flushes of white or red
                                                                                                                                                                    with:  Imperata cylindrica 'Red Baron', New Zealand sedges, Sedum telephium 'Lynda' or 'Rodney'
                                                                                                                                                                      with:  Cimicifuga simplex 'Brunette', purple forms of Salvia, blue or silvery foliage
                                                                                                                                                                        with:  other Ornamental grasses
                                                                                                                                                                          also with:  general companions given above or those suggested below for 'Aureola'
                                                                                                                                                                        Hakonechloa macra 'Mediovariegata' ('Albovariegata')leaves are striped green and cream that fades to almost white
                                                                                                                                                                          its cream-white variegation may require different companions than those described for gold-leaved forms
                                                                                                                                                                        Hakonechloa macra 'Aureola':  Golden Variegated Hakone Grass, 16"x18-24", variegated rich golden yellow and green
                                                                                                                                                                          Hakonechloa macra 'Aureola'Hakonechloa macra 'Aureola' with Trollius
                                                                                                                                                                          this wonderful short grass can be seen in the border around this page and in the photograph at the top of the page
                                                                                                                                                                            above left:  in spring with Muscari, a purple Grape Hyacinth
                                                                                                                                                                              above second from left:  later with Trollius
                                                                                                                                                                                behind:  Hosta 'Halcyon' or 'Wide Brim'
                                                                                                                                                                                  beside:  Hosta montana 'Aureo-marginata'
                                                                                                                                                                                    offset in front of:  Kirengeshoma palmata
                                                                                                                                                                                      in front of:  Calycanthus floridus 'Athens' (Carolina Allspice shrub)
                                                                                                                                                                                        with:  Imperata cylindrica
                                                                                                                                                                                          also see companions above for Hakonechloa macra 'Alboaurea'


                                                                                                                                                                                        HELICTOTRICHON

                                                                                                                                                                                        Blue Oat Grass is a cool-season clumping grass.

                                                                                                                                                                                        Helictotrichon sempervirens:  Blue Oat Grass, 2-3'x2'

                                                                                                                                                                                          Hlictotrichon sempervirens - Blue Oat Grass
                                                                                                                                                                                          uses:  plant alone or in masses, accent in borders, rock gardens
                                                                                                                                                                                            where:  well-drained, fertile soil, full sun
                                                                                                                                                                                              offset beside:  Campanula carpatica 'White Clips', Linum perenne 'Diamond', Perovskia atriplicifolia,
                                                                                                                                                                                                Sedum 'Ruby Glow'
                                                                                                                                                                                              offset beside:  Salvia officinalis 'Berggarten', Iris x germanica (purple forms)
                                                                                                                                                                                                offset behind:  Pennisetum orientale & Molinia litorialis 'Karl Foerster'
                                                                                                                                                                                                  offset behind:  Molinia litorialis 'Karl Foerster' & Acanthus hungaricus
                                                                                                                                                                                                    offset in front of:  Gypsophila 'Pink Fairy', Chrysanthemum pacificum
                                                                                                                                                                                                      offset in front of:  Lilium (pink)
                                                                                                                                                                                                        offset in front of:  Paeonia spp. & Iris sibirica
                                                                                                                                                                                                          offset behind:  Iris pallida 'Variegata' & Cheiranthus 'Bowles Mauve'
                                                                                                                                                                                                            beside:  Hosta, Geranium spp.
                                                                                                                                                                                                              between:  Deschampsia & Salvia 'East Friesland'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                between:  Nepeta & Berberis 'Crimson Pygmy'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  in front of:  Perovskia atriplicifolia, Centranthus ruber & Iris pallida 'Variegata'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    offset behind:  Hemerocallis 'Golden Gift' & Achillea 'Moonshine'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Follow the link below for even more information about this wonderful cool season Ornamental Grass.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                • silver foliage Blue Oat Grass



                                                                                                                                                                                                                • IMPERATA

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Blood Grass is a warm-season slowly spreading grass that performs best in a moisture-retentive soil and full sun. For a lovely effect, plant it so the sun shines through it from behind.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Imperata cylindrica:  Japanese Blood Grass

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    note:  all but the cultivar below can be extremely invasive and are to be avoided
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Imperata cylindrica 'Red Baron':  'Red Baron' Japanese Blood Grass, 12-18"x12"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    where:  prefers moist, well-drained soil, performing best in full sun
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      uses:  plant as a specimen or in groups, in pots or tubs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        with:  other Ornamental Grasses such as Hakonechloa macra 'Aureola', Alopecurus pratensis 'Aureomarginata'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          with:  blue-leaved grasses i.e. Festuca cinerea 'Elijah Blue', Helictotrichon sempervirens
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            with:  silver- or gray-leaved plants
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              with:  pink or purple flowers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                with:  Sedum 'Autumn Joy'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  beside:  Ilex x meserveae 'Blue Stallion'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    offset in front of:  Pennisetum alopecuroides including the cultivar 'Woodside'
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      offset behind:  Euphorbia myrsinites, Acanthus hungaricus


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FOR MORE ORNAMENTAL GRASSES & THEIR COMPANIONS FOLLOW THE LINK BELOW.


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    All of our own Gardens By The Bay pages can be accessed by clicking on the links below.


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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    CORNER GARDEN CONSTRUCTION  |  CORNER GARDEN PLANTING  |  LONG GARDEN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EAST GARDEN  |  HOSTA GARDEN  |  NORTH GARDEN  |  WINTER GARDENS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PLANT PARTNERSHIPS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BLUE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Geranium  |  Iris - Vinca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BULBS    Allium - Hyacinthus  |  Narcissus only  |  Tulipa only  |  Minor Bulbs

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    BUTTERFLY MAGNETS    Anaphalis - Hemerocallis  |  Liatris - Veronicastrum
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DAYLILIES      Spider & Unusual Form

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    EDGERS    Arabis - Iris  |  Nepeta - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FOLIAGE PERENNIALS     Alchemilla - Tanacetum

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HOSTA    Hosta - all

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    HUMMINGBIRD-FRIENDLY PERENNIALS    Alcea - Salvia

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ORANGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Tulipa

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    ORNAMENTAL GRASSES    Acorus - Imperata |  Miscanthus - Spodiopogon

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PINK PERENNIALS    Achillea - Lilium  |  Lychnis - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PURPLE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Liatris  |  Polemonium - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    RED PERENNIALS    Achillea - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SHADE PERENNIALS    Aegopodium - Erythronium  |  Ferns - Polemonium  |  Polygonatum - Vinca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SILVER FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Cerastium    |    Cornus - Limonium    |    Lunaria - Veronica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    SIMPLY SPECIAL PERENNIALS    Acanthus - Saxifraga

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    WHITE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Iris  |  Kalimeris - Yucca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    YELLOW PERENNIALS    Achillea - Hypericum  |  Inula - Verbascum

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    VARIEGATED-FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Acorus - Erythronium  |  Hakonechloa - Lysimachia  |  Miscanthus - Yucca

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PLANT PROFILES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Dianthus 'Tiny Rubies'  |  Geranium  |  Geum coccineum  |  Kerria japonica  |  Knautia macedonica

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Paeonia tenuifolia  |  Papaver somniferum  |  Rudbeckia  |  Salvia 'East Friesland'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Trollius  |  Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue'

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    PROPAGATION

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    DIVISION - SPRING ONLY  |   DIVISION - FALL ONLY  |   DIVISION - SPRING OR FALL  |   DO NOT DIVIDE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FERTILIZATION

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