white Veronica 'Icicle'


Christopher Lloyd, in his book COLOR FOR ADVENTUROUS GARDENERS says this about the colour white in the garden: "Cold, staring and assertive, it draws your eye but makes you wish it hadn't."

And Patrick Lima, in his book THE ART OF PERENNIAL GARDENING: CREATIVE WAYS WITH HARDY FLOWERS, also cautions that "white is not always the unifying colour you might imagine".

Heed the advice of the experts and exercise care in the use of white flowers, so you don't create effects you would prefer to avoid. Many of the partnership ideas below come from various gardening experts. Use them to assist in choosing appropriate companions.

* Watch for the animated hummingbird and butterfly with the plants that attract them. *
The deer icon indicates plants that deer are not usually attracted to.

The best time and method to propagate plants can be found on our image-intensive PROPAGATION page.

To help your plants grow their best, check out our FERTILIZATION page.

To create your own plant partnerships based on tried and true color theory, check out our GARDEN COLOR page.

To see if a particular plant is on this page press Ctrl+F, type in the name, then click the Find button.


I can't find much information about this perennial so I welcome input from anyone who can tell me more about this plant with aster-like blooms. It was supposed to have white flowers but when my plant finally bloomed this year the colour was a lovely light lavender shade. And it didn't start to bloom until into the month of October.

Kalimeris mongolica 'Hortensis':  Double Japanese Aster

    synonym:  Asteromoea mongolica
      use as:  a filler in the garden
        nice with:  nearly everything (long bloom time)
      Follow the link below for more information and ideas.

    • Kalimeris with variegated foliage

    • LAMIUM

      A mat-forming semi-evergreen perennial for partial shade, Dead Nettle usually has variegated foliage and flowers in a variety of colours, including white.

      Lamium maculatum 'White Nancy'

      Follow the links below for partnership ideas and helpful information about this lovely plant with the terrible-sounding common name.

    • pink Lamiums
    • Lamiums in shade
    • Lamiums with silver foliage
    • Lamiums with variegated foliage


      Edelweiss is a spring-flowering perennial with silvery, woolly foliage and wonderful white flowers.

      Leontopodium alpinum:  Edelweiss, woolly white flowers

        where:  gravel gardens, well-drained rock garden


      If you have a sunny location and rich, well-drained soil Gayfeather will provide you with lush mid-summer bloom. In addition to the many forms with spikes of purple or purple-pink flowers, there are choices in white as seen below.

      Liatris spicata:  white forms

      Liatris spicata 'Floristan White' Liatris of other colours and the perennials that make suitable partners are also featured at the links below.

    • various Liatris forms
    • purple Liatris

    • LILIUM

      The Lily is one of the most loved perennials for sunny sites. If the colour white is what you are looking for, make your choice from the forms outlined below. An unnamed lily cultivar forms the border around this page and is in the image at the top of the page.

      Lilium candidum:  pure white Trumpet Madonna Lily

        where to use:  "Moon" Gardens
      Lilium martagon:  ivory
        with:  Gypsophila paniculata, Monarda didyma (red), Delphinium (blue)
      Lilium martagon album:  white form of Lilium martagon
        with:  Rosemary, Lavandula
      Lilium 'Apollo':  white Hybrid Asiatic Lily
        where:  patio planters, perennial borders
          with:  dwarf Rhododendron
        Lilium:  an unnamed white cultivar
          Lilium - an unknown white cultivar
          this lily is stark white, a colour that may be difficult to blend in with other white flowers
            above:  echoing the white stripe in the centre of Ornamental Grass foliage
          Find a wealth of Lilies at the links below. Use the recommended companions or choose some of your own. You're sure to love the result.

        • orange Lilies
        • pink Lilies
        • red Lilies
        • yellow Lilies

        • LIMONIUM

          A clump-forming perennial, Statice blooms in late summer in a cloud of colour, usually purple shades, but is also available in white.

          Limonium latifolium:  Sea Lavender, Statice

            not a synonym for:  Goniolinum tataricum which is German Statice or Dumosa
              where:  borders, seaside gardens
                with:  Iris, Phlox, Echinacea purpurea, Lilium, Liriope spicata, Helenium, Platycodon, Achillea, Aster,
                  Gaura lindheimeri, Tanacetum vulgare
                with:  Ornamental Grasses
                  behind:  Salvia argentia
                    beside:  Allium tuberosum
                      to lighten:  Phlox paniculata, Lilium, Echinacea purpurea, Helenium, Platycodon, Iris
                        in front of:  Sedum spectabile 'Stardust'
                          not beside:  small-flowered Michaelmas Daisies, Chrysanthemum parthenium (they dilute its effectiveness)
                        If you need more information about this genus, visit the link below.

                      • Limonium siting

                      • LINUM

                        Perennial Flax is an upright perennial with fine-textured foliage and open flowers on slender stems. They sway in the lightest breeze and spent flowers drop to the ground, only to be replaced by new blooms. Usually available in blue, there is also a white form.

                        Linum perenne 'White Diamond':  compact, white Flax

                          with:  Linum perenne 'Sapphire'
                        Other colours of Flax are available. Check out the following links to see whether any of the choices would fit into your garden design. They are all lovely.

                      • blue Flax
                      • yellow Flax

                      • LIRIOPE

                        An excellent groundcover choice for late summer bloom, Lilyturf grows in sun or shade, under trees or along a path. Purple is the usual colour although white is available as well.

                        Liriope muscari 'Monroe White':  reseeds

                          where:  as groundcover in shade
                            with:  Liriope muscari 'Majestic'
                          If you are having trouble with a shady spot in your garden, consider the Lilyturf as a possible solution. Check out the link below for information and companions.

                        • Liriope for shade
                        • Liriope with variegated foliage

                        • LUNARIA

                          Honesty is a biennial which produces blooms, followed by coin-shaped seedheads, hence the other common name, Money Plant. The outer skin of these papery pods can be removed and the pods used in dried arrangments.

                          Lunaria annua:  Money Plant, Honesty

                            formerly:  Lunaria biennis
                              where:  shady sites
                                with:  Kerria japonica, Forsythia, Loddon Lilium, Tulipa (white or bright red), Galtonia candicans
                              Learn more about this self-seeding biennial by following the link below.

                            • Money Plant with silver foliage

                            • LYCHNIS

                              If you find the scarlet flowers of many Campion forms difficult to place in the garden, there are several choices in white to make plant partnership choices somewhat easier. Correct pronunciation of this genus is LICK-niss.

                              Lychnis:  Campion, white forms

                                with:  Lavandula, Nepeta, Lilium (white or pale pink)
                              Lychnis coronaria 'Alba':  white-flowered Rose Campion
                                generally with:  pastel or white border schemes
                              Lychnis coronaria 'Angel Blush':  mostly white with delicate pink markings
                                Lychnis coronaria 'Angel Blush'
                                this is a lovely change from the usual magenta-coloured form of this perennial
                              Campion colours are varied. For more choices and potential partners, visit our links below.

                            • orange Lychnis
                            • pink Lychnis
                            • red Lychnis
                            • Lychnis with silver foliage

                            • LYSIMACHIA

                              Available in several yellow forms, Loosestrife can also provide white in the garden with the form below.

                              Lysimachia clethroides: Gooseneck Loosestrife, 3', July-September

                                Lysimachia clethroides - Gooseneck Loosestrife
                                where:  in sun to part shade, perennial borders, woodlands, waterside
                                  sideplant with:  spring bulbs, esp. Narcissus
                                    with:  Monarda, Heliopsis
                                      with:  Iris sibirica, Ligularia dentata or Ligularia stenocephala, Filipendula, Hosta, ferns
                                        fall colour combination with:  Bergenia & Platycodon
                                      The Loosestrife forms at the links below will add interest to your gardens. Partner them as recommended for extra effect.

                                    • Loosestrife for shade
                                    • yellow Loosestrife
                                    • Loosestrife with variegated foliage

                                    • MALVA

                                      In well-drained soil, with full sun to light shade, the Mallow can be used to provide a valuable taller accent in the garden. Somewhat like a small hibiscus flower, the rose, pink or white blooms combine well with other mid-summer bloomers.

                                      Malva moschata 'Alba':  white Musk Mallow, 24-36", July-Sept. bloom

                                        Malva moschata
                                        with:  Phlox paniculata, Achillea, Liatris, Artemisia, Eryngium, Antique Roses, wildflowers
                                          with:  Mums (now called Dendranthema)
                                            behind:  Dianthus
                                          If you want more Malva in your beds, see what effects you might create with the suggestions at the link below.

                                        • pink Mallow

                                        • MONARDA

                                          Bee Balm, or Bergamot, prefers moist well-drained soil in full sun or part shade. Keep them well-watered and they will reward you with masses of bloom in a variety of colours including white.

                                          Monarda didyma 'Snow Queen':  white

                                            with:  Hemerocallis 'Cherry Cheeks' (a raspberry-pink)
                                          Bee Balms and their companions will add wonderful effects to your gardens. Consider any of the forms and combinations suggested below.

                                        • numerous Bee Balms
                                        • blue Bee Balms
                                        • pink Bee Balms
                                        • red Bee Balms

                                        • MYRRHIS

                                          Now that I have a somewhat shaded spot in which to garden, I can finally grow Sweet Cicely, a lovely and graceful perennial with aromatic, ferny foliage and white flowers in early summer. I can tell already it will become a favourite.

                                          Myrrhis odorata

                                          Do you need more information about growing this perennial with lovely foliage? Try the link below.

                                        • more Sweet Cicely

                                        • PAEONIA

                                          The Peony is a staple in most gardens, in a variety of colour choices, including white. Always take the time to dead-head spent flowers and cut stems back to below the foliage that, for this little effort, will remain attractive for the rest of the gardening season. Nothing is sadder in a garden than to see such a lovely plant left to flop onto the ground after, or even during, its spring to early summer bloom.

                                          Paeonia lactiflora:  white

                                            unnamed white Paeonia - Peony
                                            this is the peony shown in the border around this page and in the image at the top of the page
                                              white combination behind:  Geranium sanguineum 'Album'
                                                with:  Thalictrum aquilegiafolium (a white form)
                                                  with:  Veronica teucrium 'Shirley Blue'
                                                Paeonia 'Nick Shaylor':  white with red-flecked petals
                                                  for an echo with:  Potentilla 'Gibson's Scarlet'
                                                Look for Peonies of other colours at the links below. By themselves or with the partners suggested by gardening experts, they can provide season-long interest with their foliage and seasonal accents with their wonderful colours.

                                              • pink Peonies
                                              • red Peonies
                                              • yellow Peonies

                                              • PHILADELPHUS

                                                Mock Orange is an old-fashioned shrub with fragrant white flowers, single or double, in early summer.

                                                Philadelphus coronarius:  Mock Orange, an old fashioned shrub for early summer bloom

                                                  underplant with:  Erythronium, Scilla, Chionodoxa


                                                Mention the word Phlox and many different colour choices come to mind. But don't forget that there are white forms that may bring less impact to a garden scene but are lovely nonetheless in their simplicity. Phlox paniculata is particularly unappealing to deer.

                                                Phlox carolina'Miss Lingard':  early-blooming June-July

                                                Phlox paniculata:  white forms Phlox paniculata 'Mt. Fujiyama' Phlox paniculata 'White Admiral' Phlox subulata:  white forms Phlox of many colours and for different situations can be accessed, along with suitable companions for each, at the following links.

                                              • numerous Phlox forms
                                              • Phlox as edgers
                                              • blue Phlox
                                              • orange Phlox
                                              • pink Phlox
                                              • red Phlox
                                              • Phlox for shade
                                              • Phlox with variegated foliage

                                              • PHYSOSTEGIA

                                                The white forms of Obedient Plant, or False Dragonhead, I have grown tend to be shorter than the more colourful types, and are therefore able to fill a completely different spot front to mid-border.

                                                Physostegia virginiana:  Obedient Plant, white forms

                                                  combined with other whites:  Lilium 'Casa Blanca', Liatris 'Floristan White', Phlox paniculata 'Mt. Fujiyama'
                                                Physostegia virginiana 'Alba':  pure white Obedient Plant,18-24"
                                                  with:  pink Echinacea purpurea, Sedum 'Autumn Joy'
                                                    with:  Boltonia asteroides (pink form), Phlox paniculata, Thalictrum (late-blooming species)
                                                      with:  Eupatorium, Solidago, Helianthus, Ornamental Grasses
                                                    More Obedient Plant forms, with partners recommended by gardening experts, are available at the link that follows.

                                                  • pink Obedient Plant

                                                  • PLATYCODON

                                                    The inflated buds of Balloon Flower cry out to the child in all of us to "pop" them to become their distinct shallow, bell-shaped flowers. Place this perennial in full sun to light shade and provide rich, well-drained soil to ensure best performance.

                                                    Platycodon grandiflorus:  white forms

                                                      in front of:  Anchusa
                                                    Platycodon grandiflorus 'Album':  white, 30-40"
                                                      with:  Platycodon grandiflorus (deep blue) or Platycodon grandiflorus 'Sentimental Blue'
                                                        with:  Liatris 'Kobold'
                                                      Looking for more about this genus and all the amazing cultivars it offers? Just follow the links below.

                                                    • blue Balloon Flower forms
                                                    • pink Balloon Flower forms
                                                    • purple Balloon Flower forms
                                                    • the "special" Balloon Flower

                                                    • POLEMONIUM

                                                      Commonly called Jacob's Ladder or Greek Valerian, this genus has many forms totally content in a woodland setting. Cup-shaped flowers appear in clusters in late spring or early summer. Most commonly grown are the lavender-blue forms, but there are lovely ones available in other colours as well, including white in the form below.

                                                      Polemonium caeruleum 'Album':  White Jacob's Ladder, 18-24"x12"

                                                        where:  in masses under shrubs or airy flowering trees
                                                      Check out the links below for more Jacob's Ladder information and partnership ideas.

                                                    • blue Jacob's Ladder
                                                    • purple Jacob's Ladder
                                                    • Jacob's Ladder in shade
                                                    • Jacob's Ladder with variegated foliage

                                                    • POLYGONATUM

                                                      Solomon's Seal, whether the foliage is solid green or variegated, is a graceful perennial that provides white blooms on arching stems. Use this perennial to bring architectural structure to a shady area in your garden.

                                                      Polygonatum odoratum:  Solomon's Seal

                                                      Go to the link below for more ideas on the use of Solomon's Seal.

                                                    • Solomon's Seal in shade
                                                    • Solomon's Seal with variegated foliage

                                                    • PRUNELLA

                                                      Self-Heal produces a ground-covering mat of foliage, topped with short flower spikes, white in the cultivar named below, in sun or shade, in moist well-drained soil.

                                                      Prunella grandiflora 'Alba':  white Self-Heal, 12"

                                                        with:  ferns, Hosta, Astilbe, spring bulbs


                                                      The Pasque Flower is a spring-blooming perennial with fuzzy leaves and flowers that are followed by fluffy white seed heads. Dead-head faithfully and new flowers stems will appear from the base to extend the flowering period considerably.

                                                      Pulsatilla vulgaris:  Pasque Flower, all colours including white

                                                        formerly:  Anemone pulsatilla
                                                          where:  rock gardens. borders
                                                            with:  bulbs, Arabis, Aurinia saxatilis, Iberis sempervirens, Aquilegia
                                                              with:  Viola
                                                                with:  Narcissus 'Accent' (in a woodland setting)
                                                                  over:  early Crocus
                                                                    behind:  Primula spp.
                                                                      in front of:  Anemone blanda
                                                                    Pulsatilla vulgaris 'White Bells':  white Pasque Flower
                                                                      Pulsatilla vulgaris 'White Bells'
                                                                      try this white cultivar with any of the combinations suggested above
                                                                    If you don't grow this perennial yet, be sure to try it soon in any of its flower or foliage colour forms.

                                                                  • Pasque Flower with silver foliage

                                                                  • SALVIA

                                                                    The perennial Sage plant does not immediately bring the colour white to mind. But there are lovely white forms, including the one below, that can be used to bring a soothing tone to sites in full sun or light shade and well-drained soil.

                                                                    Salvia nemorosa 'Schneehugel'

                                                                      synonym:  Salvia nemorosa 'Snow Hill'
                                                                        with:  Tanacetum coccineum (red or pink), blue Salvia, Lychnis (Red Campion)
                                                                      Salvias of other colours and the plants that can be used to complement them can be found at the links below.

                                                                    • purple Salvia
                                                                    • yellow Salvia
                                                                    • Salvias to attract Hummingbirds
                                                                    • Salvias with silver foliage
                                                                    • Salvias with variegated foliage

                                                                    • SANGUINARIA

                                                                      Bloodroot, whether in single or double form, is a wonderful early spring blooming perennial whose lovely white flowers precede the large, somewhat heart-shaped foliage.

                                                                      Sanguinaria canadensis:  Bloodroot, Red Puccoon

                                                                        where:  woodland gardens, groundcover under shrubs
                                                                          soil preference:  acidic, humusy and damp
                                                                            with:  Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-Pulpit), wildflowers
                                                                              with:  Galanthus nivalis, ferns, spring bulbs
                                                                                with:  Uvularia grandiflora
                                                                                  combined with:  Hosta, Polemonium & Mertensia virginica
                                                                                    woodland combination with:  Iris cristata & Stylophorum diphyllum
                                                                                      with:  Phlox divaricata, Tiarella cordifolia or Tiarella wherryi
                                                                                        with:  Heuchera (purple-leaved forms), Disporum sessile 'Variegatum' (18" spring woodland bulb)
                                                                                      Sanguinaria canadensis 'Flore Pleno':  Double Puccoon, pure white double
                                                                                        Sanguinaria canadensis 'Flore Pleno'
                                                                                        the double form above will be complemented by any of the early-blooming companions suggested for the single form
                                                                                          with:  Pulmonaria (blue, for a brilliant contrast)
                                                                                            with:  Pulmonaria (pink, for a more subtle contrast)


                                                                                          Burnet, known for its white bottlebrush flower spikes, will thrive in sun and moist soil.

                                                                                          Sanguisorba canadensis:  Canadian Burnet

                                                                                            where:  rear border position
                                                                                              with:  Aconitum carmichaelii (A. fischeri), Phlox paniculata, Aster, Boltonia asteroides
                                                                                                with:  Sedum including 'Autumn Joy', Ornamental Grasses


                                                                                              Pincushion Flower, well known for its so-called "blue" forms is also available in white. This is not only excellent in the garden but provides good cut flowers as well.

                                                                                              Scabiosa caucasica 'Alba':  a white version of 'Fama'

                                                                                                with:  Scabiosa caucasica 'Fama' (blue)
                                                                                              Scabiosa caucasica 'Perfecta Alba':  pure white, long-blooming
                                                                                                Scabiosa caucasica 'Perfecta Alba'
                                                                                                in front of:  Hosta fortunei 'Picta'
                                                                                              Pincushion Flowers are also featured at the links below.

                                                                                            • pink Pincushion Flower
                                                                                            • yellow Pincushion Flower

                                                                                            • SEDUM

                                                                                              In full sun and well-drained soil, Stonecrop will provide you with many interesting foliage choices and flower colours, with white being the one colour you least expect of this perennial. Try the form below for a different effect. I read recently that only the Border Varieties attract butterflies.

                                                                                              Sedum spectabile 'Stardust':  blue-green foliage, white flowers

                                                                                              Follow the links below for more Sedum information and partnership ideas.

                                                                                            • numerous Sedums
                                                                                            • Sedums as edgers
                                                                                            • red Sedums
                                                                                            • yellow Sedums
                                                                                            • Sedums with silver foliage
                                                                                            • Sedums with variegated foliage

                                                                                            • SMILACINA

                                                                                              A woodland beauty, Solomon's Plume or False Solomon's Seal has fuzzy white flowers from 5-9" in length over graceful, arching stems arising from satiny pointed leaves. Use it in humus-rich soil in partial to full shade.

                                                                                              Smilacina racemosa:  Solomon's Plume

                                                                                                where:  with woodland plants or foliage plants, under trees and flowering shrubs
                                                                                                  with:  Aquilegia, Hosta, ferns, Dicentra, Pulmonaria, Epimedium, wildflowers
                                                                                                Want to more about this plant? Visit the link below.

                                                                                              • Smilacina in shade

                                                                                              • THALICTRUM

                                                                                                Meadow Rue produces airy blooms over foliage much like that of the Columbine. Plant them in moist, rich soil in full sun to part shade for the best performance.

                                                                                                Thalictrum aquilegiafolium:  white forms

                                                                                                  with:  dark red double Aquilegia backed by red-leaved Berberis & blue-flushed-pink foliage of Rosa glauca
                                                                                                    all white combination with:  Paeonia (white) & Geranium (white)
                                                                                                      with:  Paeonia (pink or crimson) & Campanula lactiflora (lavender)
                                                                                                    Thalictrum aquilegifolium 'Album':  white
                                                                                                      with:  Geranium spp.
                                                                                                    Meadow Rues are lovely plants and deserve to be used more often. Check out the link below for more information.

                                                                                                  • pink Meadow Rue

                                                                                                  • TIARELLA

                                                                                                    The Foamflower is another perennial perfect for partial to full shade. Soil should be slightly acidic, as preferred by many woodland species. Enjoy the white spring-blooming flowers that appear on dark stems over interesting triangular leaves that remain interesting when the plant is out of bloom.


                                                                                                    For more information about this must-have perennial, go to the link that follows.

                                                                                                  • Foamflower in shade

                                                                                                  • TRADESCANTIA

                                                                                                    Spiderwort has early three-petalled flowers growing in clusters on top of jointed stems. These flowers close by early afternoon. When the plant starts to look tired after the initial bloom, cut the foliage back to force new leaves to appear.

                                                                                                    Tradescantia x andersoniana:  white

                                                                                                      white Tradescantia x andersoniana
                                                                                                      with:  anything purple to "echo" the colour of the lovely purple stamens
                                                                                                        with:  Iris (dark red forms)
                                                                                                      Tradescantia x andersoniana 'Snowcap':  large, purest-white
                                                                                                        with:  Tradescantia x andersoniana 'Zwanenburg Blue' or 'Red Cloud'
                                                                                                      Do you grow Spiderwort? If not, you might want to start with any of the forms on the following pages.

                                                                                                    • pink Spiderwort
                                                                                                    • red Spiderwort

                                                                                                    • TRILLIUM

                                                                                                      Woodlander par excellence, the Trillium with its generally white flowers puts on its early show, then returns to dormancy.


                                                                                                      Choose appropriate partners for your Trilliums from the suggestions at the link below.

                                                                                                    • Trilliums in shade
                                                                                                    • Trilliums with variegated foliage

                                                                                                    • TULIPA

                                                                                                      Tulips come in a multitude of shapes and sizes including white. Helping them achieve a relatively dry dormancy period and providing ample water and food during spring growth will assure continued years of bloom.

                                                                                                      Tulipa:  white forms

                                                                                                      Tulips of many colours, sizes, heights, shapes and scents can be found at the links below.

                                                                                                    • orange Tulips
                                                                                                    • red Tulips
                                                                                                    • myriad Tulips
                                                                                                    • Tulips with variegated foliage

                                                                                                    • VERBASCUM

                                                                                                      Mullein, a biennial, has showy foliage in a basal rosette and, in its second year, distinctive stalks smothered in flowers. Give them full sun and average well-drained soil for best results.

                                                                                                      Verbascum chaixii 'Album':  White Mullein, 3', white with purple stamens

                                                                                                        with:  Campanula lactiflora (light lavender)
                                                                                                          behind:  Hemerocallis (early peach or melon forms, miniature-full size) & Lychnis chalcedonica (scarlet Maltese Cross)
                                                                                                            with:  Centaurea macrocephala, Hemerocallis (rust red), Turk's Cap Lilium (yellow), fronted by Alchemilla mollis
                                                                                                          Verbascum phoeniceum 'Flush of White':  pure white
                                                                                                            with:  Centranthus ruber, Heuchera sanguinea
                                                                                                          More Mulleins can be found at the link below.

                                                                                                        • Mulleins with silver foliage
                                                                                                        • yellow Mulleins

                                                                                                        • VERONICA

                                                                                                          Speedwell was one of the first perennials I purchased when I began gardening many years ago. I still have divisions from that original purple-flowered plant today, and have since added the wonderful white-flowered form below.

                                                                                                          Veronica longifolia 'Icicle':  a good white, 18-24"

                                                                                                            white Veronica 'Icicle'
                                                                                                            this white form forms the border around this page and can be seen in the images at the top of the page and directly above
                                                                                                              with rounded plants:  Coreopsis, Asclepias tuberosa, Achillea, Geranium spp
                                                                                                                with:  Hemerocallis, Ornamental Grasses
                                                                                                                  with other Veronica forms:  Veronica spicata 'Red Fox' and/or 'Blue Peter' and/or 'Blue Charms' and/or 'Icicle'
                                                                                                                Spectacular Speedwells and their recommended companions can be accessed at the links below.

                                                                                                              • Veronica edgers
                                                                                                              • pink Veronica
                                                                                                              • purple Veronica
                                                                                                              • red Veronica
                                                                                                              • Veronica with silver foliage

                                                                                                              • VERONICASTRUM

                                                                                                                Culver's Root, a native North American wildflower, is an elegant plant for the rear of a sunny border. Spreading into impressive clumps, it produces whorled leaves on its stems and flowers in wands stretching high above. Keep well watered to encourage their best performance.

                                                                                                                Veronicastrum virginicum 'Album':  Culver's Root, white form

                                                                                                                Learn more about Veronicastrum, sometimes called Veronica virginica, at the link that follows.

                                                                                                              • more Veronicastrum

                                                                                                              • VINCA

                                                                                                                Myrtle, or Periwinkle, provides spring bloom on trailing, wiry stems that root as they spread. Provide part shade and your only problem will be to keep them within the limits you wish to set as their boundary.

                                                                                                                Vinca minor 'Alba':  clear white Periwinkle

                                                                                                                  with:  Vinca minor (blue forms)
                                                                                                                For other flower and leaf colours you might want to consider, try the links below.

                                                                                                              • blue-flowered Vinca
                                                                                                              • Periwinkle with variegated foliage

                                                                                                              • VIOLA

                                                                                                                Spring flowers known to all who love to walk in the woods, Violas have two upper and three lower petals, joined in a short spur. They belong to either the stemmed or stemless type depending on their growth habits. Both types prefer moist, rich soil in light to full shade.

                                                                                                                Viola cornuta 'Alba'

                                                                                                                  never with:  other Viola species
                                                                                                                Viola cornuta 'White Perfection':  pure white
                                                                                                                  where:  edger along shady walk
                                                                                                                    with:  Viola cornuta 'Jersey Gem'
                                                                                                                  Viola odorata 'White Czar':  white with purple markings, fragrant
                                                                                                                    Viola 'White Czar'
                                                                                                                    where:  beneath shrubs
                                                                                                                      with:  Narcissus 'February Gold' or Narcissus 'February Silver'
                                                                                                                        over:  Narcissus cyclamineus


                                                                                                                      Adam's Needle, sometimes also called Spanish Bayonet, produces huge clumps of swordlike foliage that can be used as a garden accent. Large clusters of bell-shaped white flowers appear on sturdy stalks arising from that foliage.

                                                                                                                      Yucca filamentosa:  Adam's Needle

                                                                                                                        where:  dry borders, rock gardens, seaside gardens, as accent or specimen plant
                                                                                                                          for foliage contrast with:  soft-leaved perennials
                                                                                                                            with:  Hemerocallis, Ornamental Grasses
                                                                                                                              with other drought-tolerant perennials:  Sedum, Lavandula, Thymus, Stachys byzantina, Verbena
                                                                                                                            Yes, there is foliage variegation in Yuccas, as well. Try the link below for more ideas.

                                                                                                                          • Yuccas with variegated foliage

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                                                                                                                            GARDEN POETRY  |  GARDEN POETRY MUSE

                                                                                                                            GEORGIAN BAY VIEW

                                                                                                                            BOTANICAL LATIN - BASICS

                                                                                                                            COLOR THEORY

                                                                                                                            THE GARDENS

                                                                                                                            CORNER GARDEN CONSTRUCTION  |  CORNER GARDEN PLANTING  |  LONG GARDEN

                                                                                                                            EAST GARDEN  |  HOSTA GARDEN  |  NORTH GARDEN  |  WINTER GARDENS

                                                                                                                            PLANT PARTNERSHIPS

                                                                                                                            BLUE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Geranium  |  Iris - Vinca

                                                                                                                            BULBS    Allium - Hyacinthus  |  Narcissus only  |  Tulipa only  |  Minor Bulbs

                                                                                                                            BUTTERFLY MAGNETS    Anaphalis - Hemerocallis  |  Liatris - Veronicastrum
                                                                                                                            DAYLILIES      Spider & Unusual Form

                                                                                                                            EDGERS    Arabis - Iris  |  Nepeta - Veronica

                                                                                                                            FOLIAGE PERENNIALS     Alchemilla - Tanacetum

                                                                                                                            HOSTA    Hosta - all

                                                                                                                            HUMMINGBIRD-FRIENDLY PERENNIALS    Alcea - Salvia

                                                                                                                            ORANGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Tulipa

                                                                                                                            ORNAMENTAL GRASSES    Acorus - Imperata |  Miscanthus - Spodiopogon

                                                                                                                            PINK PERENNIALS    Achillea - Lilium  |  Lychnis - Veronica

                                                                                                                            PURPLE PERENNIALS    Aconitum - Liatris  |  Polemonium - Veronica

                                                                                                                            RED PERENNIALS    Achillea - Veronica

                                                                                                                            SHADE PERENNIALS    Aegopodium - Erythronium  |  Ferns - Polemonium  |  Polygonatum - Vinca

                                                                                                                            SILVER FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Cerastium    |    Cornus - Limonium    |    Lunaria - Veronica

                                                                                                                            SIMPLY SPECIAL PERENNIALS    Acanthus - Saxifraga

                                                                                                                            WHITE PERENNIALS    Achillea - Iris  |  Kalimeris - Yucca

                                                                                                                            YELLOW PERENNIALS    Achillea - Hypericum  |  Inula - Verbascum

                                                                                                                            VARIEGATED-FOLIAGE PERENNIALS    Acorus - Erythronium  |  Hakonechloa - Lysimachia  |  Miscanthus - Yucca

                                                                                                                            PLANT PROFILES

                                                                                                                            Dianthus 'Tiny Rubies'  |  Geranium  |  Geum coccineum  |  Kerria japonica  |  Knautia macedonica

                                                                                                                            Paeonia tenuifolia  |  Papaver somniferum  |  Rudbeckia  |  Salvia 'East Friesland'

                                                                                                                            Trollius  |  Veronica 'Sunny Border Blue'


                                                                                                                            DIVISION - SPRING ONLY  |   DIVISION - FALL ONLY  |   DIVISION - SPRING OR FALL  |   DO NOT DIVIDE


                                                                                                                            BULBS  |   ORNAMENTAL GRASSES  |   PERENNIALS  |   SHRUBS  |   VINES


                                                                                                                            GARDENS  |   LOCAL GARDENS  |   BOTANICAL TERMINOLOGY

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